Mr. Tanveer Malik
Faculty in Shri Vaishnav Institute
of Technology and Science
Shriraj Nogja and Purva Goyal
of Final Year Textile S.V.I.T.S. Indore
Water and soil repellency has been one of the major targets
for fiber and textile scientists and manufacturers for centuries. Combinations
of new materials for fiber production with a variety of surface treatments have
been developed to reach the condition of limited wettability.
Nature has already developed an elegant approach that combines
chemistry and physics to create super repellant surfaces as well as self
cleaning surfaces. Lotus leaves is the best example of self cleaning
surfaces. The concept of self cleaning textiles is based on the lotus plant
whose leaves are well-known for their ability to self-clean by repelling
water and dirt. More recently, botany and nanotechnology have united to explore
not only the beauty and cleanliness of the leaf, but also its lack of
contamination and bacteria, despite its dwelling in dirty ponds.
Basically, the lotus leaf has two levels of structure
affecting this behavior micro-scale bumps and nano-scale hair-like structures
coupled with the leafs waxy chemical composition. On the basis of lotus leaf
concept scientist developed a new concept Self cleaning textile the
textile surface which can be cleaned itself without using any laundering
Now a days peoples are very busy in
their work that they do not have time for clean their daily wear cloths also
people who are working in kitchens having headache to wash their garments. Also
military peoples have to survive in such drastic condition that they cannot
wash their cloths.
Nano technology provides a new concept self cleaning
textiles which gives self cleaning as well as fresh cloths every day, this not
only technically benefited but techno economically also benefited.
Nanotechnology has real commercial potential for the textile
industry. This is mainly due to the fact that conventional methods used to
impart different properties to Fabrics often do not lead to permanent effects,
and will lose their functions after Laundering or wearing. Nanotechnology can
provide high durability for fabrics, because nano-particles have a large
surface area-to-volume ratio and high surface energy, thus presenting better
affinity for fabrics and leading to an increase in durability of the function.
In addition, a coating of nano-particles on fabrics will not affect their
breath ability or hand feel. Therefore, the interest in using nanotechnologies
in the textile industry is increasing.
There are basically two types of self-cleaning surfaces
involving nanotechnology. In the first place extremely water repellent,
microscopically rough surfaces: dirt particles can hardly get a hold on them
and are, therefore, removed by rain or by a simple rinse in water .The second
example is given by photo-catalytic layers: due to a layer of nanocrystalline
titanium oxide, fouling organic material is destroyed by solar irradiation.
Self cleaning surface having a water contact angle greater
than 150degree and a very low roll off angle. Water through these surfaces
easily rolls off and completely cleans the surface in the process. Self
cleaning fabrics not only resist coffee and red wine stains but are also
repellant to water, dirt, odour and are antibacterial as well.
The self cleaning textiles can be manufactured by
application of either fluorocarbons or by nanotechnology.