The environmental and industrial safety condition increased the potential for the use of enzymes in textile processing to ensure eco-friendly production. Laccase enzymes formulation has been used in textile processing like different processes such as bio-bleaching, dyeing, rove scouring, dyeing, finishing, neps removal, printing, wash-off treatment, dye synthesis & effluent treatment. The discharge printing by using laccases helps to avoid the hazardous reducing chemicals like sulphoxylic acid derivatives and tin salts, in particular stannous chloride. The bio-bleaching is helps the decolorising textile material by using laccase enzyme which dont increasing effluent load. Laccases are also use for washing off process which decreasing use of synthetic detergent. Laccase enzymes does not affecting fiber polymer which means less fabric damages found after processing. Laccase enzymes development further more steps in eco-friendly processing.
Enzymes are a Greek word 'Enzymos' meaning 'in the cell' or 'from the cell'. They are the protein substances made up of more than 250 amino acids. Based on specificity they are grouped. The concept of treating fabrics with enzymes to improve their surface properties was first developed in Japan in 1989. The treatment has assumed more important due present concern of clean and eco-friendly environment under the following group:
- Oxidoreductases - oxidation, reduction reaction
- Transference - transfer of functional group
- Hydrolases - hydrolysis reaction
- Lyases - addition to double bond or its reverse
- Isomerses - isomerisation
- Ligases - formation of bonds with ATP clevags
Enzymes have bright future in wet processing of textile industry. Enzymes do not produce toxic effluent as they can easily deactivated disposal off.
This paper was presented at Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), Mumbai in the VASTRA 2011 in a two day event held on Feb 18th & 19th, 2011
The author is associated with Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji