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Defects in garments
By :   D.Gopalakrishnan, Arpita Nayak
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Garment defects, classified according to the various manufacturing stages are:


Pattern defects in garment:


Some parts of pattern are missing, probably because the marker did not include the correct number of parts. Mixed parts, probably because the marker is not correctly labeled, resulting in a marriage of wrong sized parts. Patterns not facing in correct direction on napped fabrics. Not all patterns facing in same direction (either way) on a one-way fabric. Patterns not aligned with respect to the fabric grain. Poor line definition (e.g. too thick chalk; indistinctly printed line, perforated lay not powdered) leading to inaccurate cutting. Skimpy marking, caused by either the marker did not use the outside edge of the pattern; or the pattern was moved or swung after partial marking to squeeze the pattern into a smaller space for economizing the fabric. Marking back from miniature markers also can cause trouble unless the miniature marker making is in the hands of experienced operators. Alternatively the full size pattern may be having worn out edges.

Generous marking, especially in combination with skimpy marking results in components being sewn together with puckering and pleating. When the marker is too wide, the garment parts at the edges of the lay get cut with bits missing. Not enough knife clearance freedom. Wrong check matching, i.e. lines across the seam are not matching.


Wrong check boxing, i.e. checks are not showing a full or partial box across the seam.
Notches and drill marks omitted, indistinct or misplaced.


Spreading defects in garment:


Not enough plies to cover quantity of garments required. Plies misaligned, resulting in garment parts getting cut with bits missing in some plies at the edge of the spread. Narrow fabric, causes garment parts at the edge of the lay getting cut with bits missing. Incorrect tension of plies, i.e. fabric spread too tight or too loose. This will result in parts not fitting in sewing, and finished garments not meeting size tolerances. Not all plies facing in correct direction (whether 'one way' as with nap, or 'one way either way' as with some check designs). This happens when fabric is not spread face down, face up, or face to face as required. Unacceptable damages in the garment parts. Parts not fully included owing to splicing errors. Spread distorted by the attraction or repulsion of plies caused by excessive static electricity. Plies are not spread accurately one above another for cutting. This results in mismatching checks.


Cutting defects in garment:


Failure to follow the marker lines resulting in distorted garment parts. Top and bottom plies can be a different size if the straight knife is allowed to lean, or if a round knife is used on too high a spread. Notches, which are misplaced, too deep, too shallow, angled, omitted, or wrong type to suit fabric .Drill marks, which are misplaced, wrong drill to suit fabric, omitted, not perpendicular through the spread. Frayed edges, scorched or fused edges, caused by a faulty knife, not sharp enough, or rotating at too high a speed. Knife cut. Garment part damaged by careless use of knife, perhaps overrunning cutting previous piece. Marker incorrectly positioned on top of spread. Garment parts have bits missing at edge of lay. If too tight or too loose then garment parts are distorted. Slits opened inaccurately or omitted.


Garment Twist


A rotation, usually lateral, between different panels of a garment resulting from the release of latent stresses during laundering of the woven or knitted fabric forming the garment. Twist may also be referred to as Torque or Spirality.


Identification of knitted fabric defects:


It is very natural that in the course of knitting fabrics, imperfections occur. The imperfections may be the result of faulty yarn, knitting machine malfunction or improper finishing. The defects in knitting construction are considered in terms of appearance and nature.





 

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