Technical University of Łódź, Faculty of Textile Engineering and Marketing, Department of Spinning Technology and Yarn Structure, ul. Żeromskiego 116, 90-543 Łódź, Poland


Abstract


This article presents an analysis and comparison of the parameters of cotton yarn spun on the Fiomax EliTe compact spinning frame from Suessen, and on the PJ 34 conventional ring spinning frame. Combed and carded cotton yarns with linear densities of 15 tex, 18 tex, and 20 tex were manufactured from the same middle staple cotton on both spinning frames, by eliminating 24% of the noils during the combing process. Within the tests carried out, we analysed the following quality parameters of slivers and rovings: the linear density, the mass irregularity, and the tensile strength of the fibre stream (the cohesion strength). We have also assessed and analysed the quality parameters of yarns, such as tenacity, elasticity, mass irregularity, yarn faults, and hairiness. Yarns spun on the EliTe compact spinning frame have the following advantages when compared to those spun on the PJ spinning frame: higher tenacity and elongation at break, lower mass irregularity measured on short segments, and a significantly smaller number of faults such as thin & thick places and neps, as well as a higher degree of elasticity, and a considerably lower hairiness.


Key words: compact yarn, EliTe, combed yarn, carded yarn, quality parameters.


Introduction


Compact spinning systems were first presented at the International Textile Machine Fair ITMA99. However, investigations into compact spinning have been carried out since 1991, whereas the first spinning frame adapted for compact spinning and dedicated to industrial use were built in 1995. At present, the Rieter, Suessen, and Zinser companies have produced compact ring spinning frames. Over 330,000 spindles of ring spinning frames with the EliTe compact drawing apparatus from Suessen are currently operating in spinning mills [22] all over the world (see Figure 1).


The aim of applying the compact spinning systems is the increase in yarn quality by means of narrowing and decreasing the width of the band of fibres which come out from the drawing apparatus before it is twisted into yarn, and by the elimination of the twisting triangle.

The EliTe compact system has been incorporated by the Suessen company into a Fiomax-1000 ring spinning frame with drawing apparatus with a three-pair roller. The EliTe system, which is used to pneumatically condense the band of fibres, includes the following elements: feeding rollers, a pair of intermediate rollers encircled by belts, another intermediate pair of rollers, and the delivery roller which works together with a lattice apron. The delivery roller drives the lattice apron, which encircles a profile tube. This tube is under negative pressure. The profile tube is provided with a slot positioned at an incline to the direction of the fibre stream. This causes the fibre stream to change its direction, and so the flat band of fibres is condensed into a compact fibre stream. In addition, the skew position of the slot eliminates the influence of the thickness of the backing on the condensation effect. The condensation zone has its end at the fibres jamming line between the delivery roller and the lattice apron. This line covers the point at which the twist is initiated, and at the same time causes the elimination of the twisting triangle (Figure 2).


Research work into the structure of compact yarns and into spinning frame development has been carried out not only by the Suessen company, but also by other machine makers such as Rieter and Zinser [2,3,18,21,35].