A hybrid textile refers to fabric that has more than one type of structural fibre in its manufacture. It is a mixture of spun yarns of reinforcing fibres and thermoplastic matrix fibres. Normally in a multi layered fabric, if the properties of more than one fibre are needed, two different fabrics will be used. These fabrics had their own disadvantage of brittleness, lengthy cure cycles, and inability to recycle damaged parts. Hybrid fibres are a positive advancement over such intrinsic problems in a way that the fabric will have just one layer with one fibre running in the weft direction and the second, different fibre running in the warp direction. It can also be woven as alternate threads of each fibre in each weft and warp direction.
Hybrid yarns can be manufactured through many ways like co-wrapping, core spinning, and commingling. This enables uniform distribution of the reinforcement fibres and reduces its damage. It generally comprises of 50 55 % of reinforcing fibres and 50-45 % of thermoplastic fibres. Using hybrid yarns in textiles enhances its performance in high end applications. They provide good matrix-reinforcement, excellent sealability, and chemical resistance, and are suitable for the environments adequate abrasion resistance.
Parallel fibres are inserted in different orientations layer by layer, and are stitched through a loop system with a thin polyester yarn. Thus, a range of fabrics with many different properties for the industry of composites is obtained. Manufacturing of hybrid yarn does not involve environmental problems as the thermoplastic polymers can be reused in a far easier way. Hybrid textiles are manufactured by weaving together; various fibre combinations of carbon, aramid, glass, etc.
- Aramid and Glass: The combination of aramid and glass posses good compression of aramid, and tensile strength of glass along with a lower production cost.
- Carbon and Glass: This combination consolidates the compression strength and stiffness of carbon with less density along with the lesser cost of glass.
- Carbon and Aramid: The high tensile strength of aramid fibres and combined with the tensile strength of carbon. Both the fibres have less density, but are costlier.
Hybrid Yarns with Plant Bast Fibres: These yarns include natural plant bast fibres in combination with thermoplastic fibres. The fabrics made from this yarn are applicable for low to medium strength applications. These fabrics are environmentally friendly and are an alternative to fiberglass based composite reinforcements.
Various industrial applications of high performance, Hybrid Textiles:
Hybrid fabrics can be used in a wide range of industrial applications:
- Aircraft applications
- Industrial applications
- Medical applications
- Construction industry applications
- Aquaculture for waterproof clothing
- Windproof clothing
- Automotive industry in making sear covers, carpets etc
Hybrid fibres posses better mechanical properties, reduce delamination and maximize tensile strength. It is possible to cut this fabric into different widths without the fibres falling apart while laminating or handling. It further posses excellent drapability.
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