Textile industry is a major source of revenue generation in many countries. It is one of the important industrial sectors in a country utilizing enormous resources of water and energy. The industry is also prone to the image of emissions. Impact on the environment by textile industry is being recognized both in terms of water and energy consumption, and also in terms of discharge of effluents. The operating process of textile industries consume enormous amount of water. Apart from this, yarn and fabric treatments undertaken in textile industries result in effluents that pollute the environment and are also hazardous to human health.
Global Water Shortage:
Water is said to become scarce in the forthcoming years. Demand for water is growing more than the growth of human population. During the past century, there was a three fold increase in population, whereas the demand for water has increased by seven times. In a textile industry, finishing is a major source of emission. It takes 2500 liters of water for manufacturing one cotton shirt. Wet processing not only consumes large volumes of water, but also discharges effluents that pollute the environment. Water scarcity is already felt by the textile industries. Due to this, proposed textile projects are given permission by the Government, only if they are able to show that they can solve water issues, and have adequate facilities for treating waste water.
With the growth of mechanization, energy consumption has simultaneously increased. Textile industry being more energy intensive is vulnerable to a high rate of energy loss across various production processes thereby resulting in increased energy bills and productivity losses; which ultimately results in a profound financial impact. Technological advancements and functioning abilities of machineries of replacing human labor with electric power have increased the energy cost for every unit of output comparatively over the past years. Textile industries require both electric and thermal energy for their functioning. Wet processing techniques also consume higher amount of thermal energy. Singeing operations employed to destroy singes on the fabric surface consumes a lot of energy. On an average, electricity bill contributes to approximately 40-45% of the total utility bill being paid by a textile industry.
Energy and Water Conservation:
Global textile industries are now facing a tough challenge. The intimidating shortage of water and energy levels urge the need for optimum utilization of water and energy resources and adopting environmentally friendly production methods.
- Eco friendly textiles consume less energy and resources. Using eco-friendly fabrics and sustainable printing processes, alleviates the need for cost prohibitive energy and water consumption.
- Usage of water for wet processing can be minimized by adopting techniques like waste water heat recovery, dryer equipments, fabric moisture control, reuse of singeing cooling water, and reduction of stenter exhaust gas etc.
- Initial moisture retention of wet fabric at the inlet of the conventional drying system can be minimized by adopting Convective Air Pre-drying (CAPD) System, which has been developed using atmospheric convective air with less energy cost. This will further minimize the drying load of the main dryer and reduce the usage of thermal energy in the conventional drying system.