Originally published in Tekstilna Industrija, June 2011
The effect of repeated laundering processes with two commercial detergents with different formulation on structural characteristics such as weight per unit area, fabrics thickness, course and wale density, stitch density and dimensional stability as well colour fastness of the single jersey knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton of two different grades after same finishing process, first and fifth washing cycles were investigated. The colour changes and staining was evaluated by the Grey Scale, CIE Lab coordinates and colour difference ΔE. Structural characteristics and shrinkage increased linearly with repeated laundering regardless of the type of the detergent and grade of cotton but with small differences between different grades of cotton. Liquid detergent, Lira showed more homogeneous structural characteristics giving knitted fabrics with better dimensional stability than powder detergent, Ariel. Dyed knitted fabrics have excellent colour fastness to washing.
Today's consumer conscious is not only aware of the style and comfort of the knitted fabrics, but also of there care and durability. With the rising demands of the cotton knitted fabrics, demands in term of dimensional instability, shrinkage and colour fading, in contrast to its excellent attributes, are the most critical quality problems after repeated laundering. Consequently, the "quality" term is placing a higher priority of the manufacturers' objectives. Fabric performance is influenced by a number of variables that occur both in pre-consumer and post-consumer period. Fiber quality, yarn formation, fabric construction, textile wet processes and consumer washing processes can all have an influence on the fabric performances. Consumer washing processes such as detergent selection and laundering regimes also play a major role in ability to retain fabrics performance. Nowadays, two household detergents, markedly different in formulations and physical and chemical properties are widely used in the daily life and are suitable for laundry purposes. Laundry detergents have traditionally been powdered but the use of liquid laundry detergents has gradually increased over the years. Market studies show that costumers frequently use one type of detergent for all shades (light, medium or dark shade).
The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of different detergents in the laundering of single jersey fabrics from different grades of cotton through changes in structural characteristics, dimensional stability, colour fastness to washing after finishing processes, first and fifth washing cycles.
The authors are associated with University Ss. "Cyril and Methodius", Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia