Apparels are fundamental necessities for humanity, serving not only the purpose of protection but also requiring comfort in wear. Knitted clothing has gained consumer preference due to its easy care and comfort attributes. Comfort in apparel encompasses two primary aspects: tactile and sensorial. Tactile comfort is assessed through fabric hand, while sensorial comfort relies on heat and moisture transport properties of fabrics. The Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-FB) was developed to objectively assess fabric handle properties, eliminating the need for traditional expert assessments.

This study delves into the low-stress mechanical properties of various woven and knitted cotton apparel fabrics using the Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-FB).


Fabric hand significantly influences the overall quality of apparel fabrics. It is influenced by both fabric structure and the low-stress mechanical properties of the materials employed. Fabric hand is a multifaceted property intertwined with fabric behavior during various deformations such as tensile, shear, compressional, and bending. Additionally, surface characteristics like friction and roughness play a crucial role. When we touch a fabric, we subject it to these deformations, and nerve endings in our fingers sense resulting sensations, giving rise to subjective perceptions of fabric hand.

The KES-FB system replicates this scenario by quantifying low-stress mechanical properties of fabrics, predicting sensations such as softness or crispness via a set of transformation equations. Kawabata and colleagues developed transformation equations linking these mechanical properties to subjective hand assessments made by expert judges. Consequently, the KES-FB system can anticipate the Total Hand Value (THV) for specific end-uses based on fabric properties measured.

Read Full Article

The authors: Gurumurthy Ramaiah is associated with Lovely Professional University, Department of Fashion Technology, Jalandhar-Delhi G.T. Road, Phagwara; Radhalakshmi Y.C is with Central Silk Board, Central Silk Technological Institute, B.T.M. Layout, Madivala, Bangalore; Dr. R.P. Nachane is PS & Head QEID, CIRCOT, Adenwala Road, Matunga, Mumbai.