Dyes have been applied to textile and other substrates for thousands of years, and dyers and their suppliers have continually sought to develop new processes and products that lead to better results or lower costs, in turn translating into commercial gain. Over the last few decades, the environmental impact of those products and processes has become an increasingly large part of the dyer's task. Given the growing emphasis on the environment, it is common to have almost any technical advance in the application of dyes, be it dye, auxiliary, or machine, claimed as environmentally beneficial, however spurious such a claim might be.

The terms pollution and contamination are sometimes used interchangeably in environmental matters to describe the introduction of a substance at a concentration sufficient to be offensive or harmful to human, animal or plant life.

Biological decolorization of wastewater is a very active area of investigation and research in these areas continues to be active and innovative. In comparison to the chemical treatment, biological processes avoid consumption of high quantities of additional chemicals and energy, it has the ability to produce less sludge & it is cost effectiveness. Biological treatment either aerobic or anaerobic, is generally consider to be the most effective means of removing wastes from wastewater enriched in organic constituents.

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About the Author:

Muksit Ahamed Chowdhury is associated with the Department of Textile Technology at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

This article was originally published in the Textile Review, July, 2012.