Nanotechnology in Textile:


Nanotechnology is a growing interdisciplinary technology often seen as a new industrial revolution. Nanotechnology (NT) deals with materials 1 to 100 nm in length. The fundamentals of nanotechnology lie in the fact that the properties of materials drastically change when their dimensions are reduced to nanometer scale. Nowadays also the textile industry has discovered the possibilities of nanotechnology. So, we can define nanotechnology in textile as the understanding, manipulation, and control of matter at the above-stated length, such that the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms, molecules, and bulk matter) can be engineered, synthesized, and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials, devices, structures, and systems. It is used to develop desired textile characteristics, such as high tensile strength, unique surface structure, soft hand, durability, water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial properties, and the like.


Modern Application of Nanotechnology in Textile Industry:


Nanotechnology is increasingly attracting worldwide attention because it is widely perceived as offering huge potential in a wide range of end uses. The unique and new properties of nano materials have attracted not only scientists and researchers but also businesses, due to their huge economical potential.


Nanotechnology also has real commercial potential for the textile industry. This is mainly due to the fact that conventional methods used to impart different properties to fabrics often do not lead to permanent effects, and will lose their functions after laundering or wearing. Nanotechnology can provide high durability for fabrics, because nano-particles have a large surface area-to-volume ratio and high surface energy, thus presenting better affinity for fabrics and leading to an increase in durability of the function. In addition, a coating of nano-particles on fabrics will not affect their breath ability or hand feel.


Application of Nanotechnology we can explain in three ways:


  1. Application in department wise
  2. Application in properties of textile material
  3. Application in apparel industry


Application in department wise:


The textile industry has already impacted by nanotechnology. Research involving nanotechnology to improve performances or to create unprecedented functions of textile materials is flourishing.