The fast changing economic conditions such as global competition, declining profit margin, customer demand for high quality product, product variety and reduced lead-time etc. have a major impact on manufacturing industries. The demand for higher value at lower price is increasing and to survive, apparel manufacturers need to improve their operations through producing right first time quality and waste reduction. It is important to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain process performance with well-executed control plans. The industry can gain higher productivity and profitability with improved quality product by minimizing the need for reworks. It also minimizes cost and improves internal throughout time.
In garment business, it is quite usual that few rejected garments are left after shipment due to the unacceptable, and sometimes unrepairable, defects that occur during the manufacturing process. This may happen due to low quality raw materials or faulty process or employee's casual behavior (machine and/or human error). It is important, therefore, that the factory has evolved well defined check points to control the quality and reduce the rejection percentage. Reworks in the garments industry are quite common but they hamper the smooth normal production.
In the apparel manufacturing industry, main raw material is fabric; others are different types of trimmings and accessories. Operational wastages in the apparel manufacturing process are- top surface rework, printed label rework, sewing fault rework, pinhole rework, fabric rework, improper fly shape, and other reworks. The defects can be categorized as follows.
Sewing Defects: These defects are usually caused by errors arising from wrong functioning of sewing machines.
Seaming defects: These defects are usually caused by errors arising from the interaction of the operator and machine in the handling of garment.
Placement Defects: These defects are usually caused by errors arising in marking and cutting as well as sewing operations in the sewing room or a combination of all these.
Fabric defects: These defects are usually caused by errors arising from the fabric processing like knitting and dyeing.
Embroidery defects: These defects are usually caused by errors arising from the embroidery processing of the garments.
Major Garment Defects: Types, Causes & Solutions