This paper presents, demonstrates a complete methodological approach to find out the root causes, solutions of the problems related to pigment printing of textile. Many of the presented problems are common in textile pigment printing therefore; it could be a supportive report for practical printers. Currently, pigment printing accounts to 45-60% of the worldwide textile printing done. Its popularity is due to many reasons, for example

  •   Can be applied on every fiber

  •   Ease in application

  •   Simple machinery

  •   Large color gamut is available

  •   Acceptable fastness properties

Rotary printing machine is the most popular machine for the application of pigment printing; its market share is 55%. The present report therefore only emphasizes the problems which are associated with rotary printing machine. It is common question amongst textile printers, what pigment system should a printer employ? There is no specific answer to this question. The system should be determined by the printer, based on his plant resources, substrate, fastness requirements, end use inventory restraints and cost.

Print system components

There are three basic requirements for print paste system:

  •   Pigments

  •   Binder

  •   Thickener & Auxiliaries

Printing auxiliaries

Dispersing, Levelling & Defoaming Agent: This is used to provide depth and even level printing effect, being added to the printing paste.
Binders Acrylic, Self Thickening for Gold & Flock: These are used to bind the pigment onto the fabric.

Fixers in Pigment Printing: These are used to provide fastness to the print.

Thickeners: These are used to provide viscosity to the printing paste to facilitate required printing effect.
White Inks: These are used to provide printing effect onto the fabric.

SDC (Symptoms, Diagnosis and cure) Concept in textile pigment printing:

In order to overcome/minimize the pigment printing related problems it is essential to first understand the symptoms (problems), diagnose (ascertain the probable cause) & cure (adopting remedial measure). The SDC concept is not new in textile; various reports on it have been published. The reported studies focus on pretreatment, dyeing but, they did not discuss the practical problems of textile pigment printing. Therefore, this report specifically focuses on the problems related to pigment printing. Many of the SDC concepts have been successfully employed in pigment printing.