From designing a garment incorporating the latest trends to its complete production and the many stages involved in-between, Dr

From designing a garment incorporating the latest trends to its complete production and the many stages involved in-between, Dr. Punam Rani explains the specific processes in detail as well as managing a clothing factory.

 

Introduction:

In every clothing factory, the first stage is fashion forecasting and sketching ideas in the design development process. The next stage is the development of the sample garment, which involves collection planning, pattern making, grading and production of sample garment and costing of garment based on the working sketches. The line or the products are then appraised for production the patterns adopted for the production requirement. For handling these tasks there are specific departments in a clothing factory.

 

Principle of management

Management, according to one of the most common definitions, is "the accomplishment of desired objectives establishing an environment favourable to performance by people operating in organised groups."

 

According to Henry Fayol there are 14 principles of management which are:

1. Division of Work: allows for job specialisation. Work should be divided among individuals and groups.

2. Authority and Responsibility: Right to give orders. Responsibility involves being answerable by whoever assumes authority assumes responsibility.

3. Discipline: Common efforts of workers.

4. Unity of Command: Employees should have only one boss.

5. Unity of Direction: A single plan of action to guide the organisation.

6. Subordination: Of individual interests to general interests of organisation.

7. Remuneration: An equitable, uniform payment system that motivates and contributes to success.

8. Centralisation: Degree to which authority rests at the top of the organisation.

9. Scalar Chain: Chain-like authority scale.

10. Order: Arrangement of employees where they will be of the most value to the organisation.

11. Equity: Justice and fair dealing

12. Stability: of tenure of personnel

13. Initiative

14. Esprit de corps: Harmony, general good feeling among employees

 

The management function is essential for all organised activity and at all levels of the organisation from the managing director down to a supervisor responsible for a small section within the factory. While the managing director has full executive control and authority for conducting the affairs of the company, the supervisor has the similar powers on a far smaller scale.

 

In order to achieve the specified objectives of the company, management has to perform five basic functions to coordinate group activity:

 

Inspection of garment

Inspection of garment

-          Packing: - before entering the finished goods warehouse, garments are boxed or bagged.

Packaging of the garments

 

         Service function- while the service function mainly assists the production department, they also extend their services to other departments within the organisation. The main service departments are production engineering (project planning and development), recruitment of staff and training, machinery and equipment maintenance (maintenance of building, air conditioning, power supplies) and technical stores (holds the entire item required for repairs and maintenance).

 

         Control function- These cover control services (such as quality control) which provide production management with regular and up-to-date information on the overall and detailed performance of the factory. It enables those responsible for production to anticipate and correct deviation from plans. The main control functions are production planning and control, budgetary control and quality control.

 

3.6 Operations Department

Operations department is one of the names given to the department that has the overall responsibility for planning, controlling and coordinating all activities concerned with the logistics of raw material supply and the production of garments.

 

The functions of operations department are as follows:-

         Pre-production planning and control:-

Another function of the operations department is the pre-production planning and control, which plans and controls all the activities leading up to the actual production or garments. In effect, it is pre-production planning and control which organises and manages the route from the customer to the cutting room. The overall objective is to ensure that the logistics of supply and production are planned in such a manner that:

         The sales programme is achieved on time

         Labour, machinery and other sources are utilised to the best

         The pre-production phase for an order is ended when the production order, graded patterns and all the raw material are issued to the factory.

          

         Production planning and control (PP & C):-

 

-

 

-          Cutting room: - Here all the processes required to trim piece goods into cut garments are performed.

 

 

-          Sewing room: - Apart from actual sewing this include operations such as fusing, under-pressing, and in-process inspection. Sometimes the sewing room use outside contractors for operations which the factory is not equipped to carry out, such as pleating, embroidery and quilting.

 

-          Pressing room: - This department gives the garment its final finish by a process called top-pressing.

 

-          Final inspection:- Although this is not strictly a production function, it is tied in with production because the inspection department gives the 'go' or 'no-go' for every garment produced.

 

The most important function of the operations department is the production planning and control because without it, the department is like a bus driving along the road without a fixed route, destination or timetable

The most important function of the operations department is the production planning and control because without it, the department is like a bus driving along the road without a fixed route, destination or timetable. Production planning includes marker planning (manual or computerised technique) and cut planning and cutting room production planning.

 

As soon as the production plans are issued, the operations department begins the control procedure necessary to maintain up-to-date picture of the progress of each production order. Generally, the department requires information on the three stages of production- a) When the cutting of a production order has to be started; b) When a production order has to start being issued to the sewing room; c) the styles and qualities of the finished garments which have entered the warehouse. The department would receive information from the sections concerned on a daily or more frequent basis. Where system such as CIM (computerised integrated manufacturing) is employed, then the information is available in real time (relating to computer system that updates information at the same rate as they received data).

For the operations department, the principle of their global control system is two questions:

 

         Have the garments been started and finished on time?

         What goes in between is the responsibility of production management.

 

Conclusion:

The principles of management are the same for every clothing factory and the only difference is that of scale. While the basic purpose of factories may vary, all of them rely on the effectiveness of management in all the attainment of their objectives.

 

i. Forecasting and planning

Planning means looking ahead or to foresee, to assess the future and make provisions for it. Planning also means to decide in advance how to allocate available potential resources to fulfil set objectives. These resources can be classified in the following groups:-

 

What?

This concerns the materials required from the cloth, linings and trimmings to other ancillary material needed to produce garments such as chalk, marker paper, pins etc.

 

Where?

This the resource of space for storage of raw material or production areas of the warehousing of the finished goods.

 

Who?

Includes planning human resources, not just the production operator, but also manpower for managerial, supervisory roles and service within the factory.

 

How?

The question here is, how will the work be performed? The answer is in evaluating methods, capability of existing machinery or whether conditional machinery required. This planning element takes into account every section within the factory and not just the sewing room.

 

When?

This is the axis of all planning and time scale dictates which activity has to be performed and when it should be completed. It also includes the what, where, who and how elements to be coordinated, to ensure that they are available when required. This is the most important of all planning functions. The coordinated planning of these five elements bridges the gap from where we are to and where we need to go.

 

ii. Organisation

An organisation is not an end in itself but rather a means to achieve the required results. There has to be a structure which makes it possible to attain the planned objectives. Wherever the responsibility of management is vested in more than one person, there must be a pattern of relationship between the various management responsibilities. This involves delegation of work into or major responsibilities into specialist areas. This division creates the organisation structure. The main objective of an organisation chart is to define the management relationships within the company.

 

iii

iii. Staffing

This function is basically concerned with people and training and its short and long term objectives or to provide the organisation with right types and quantities of managerial and non managerial staff as an when they are needed. It involves the following factors:-

 

a.      Recruitment: Sources could be school or job centres in universities.

 

b.      Selection: No magic formula to ensure the person taken is right but there are some physical psychometric psychological tests if interpreted by an expert could get the company right staff.

 

c.       Training: Systematic selection helps in obtaining the best labour but this effort is wasted if employees are not given the right training. This applies to all levels because even a new manager requires some degree of training by his supervisors.

 

iv. Direction: The function of direction is concerned with getting employees to accomplish their set tasks effectively. Just planning, organising and staffing will not work, like starting an engine of a car will not make it move. It is the function of direction which breathes life into planning and organisation. The behaviour of a group largely depends on the type of manager it has and good managers will always provide subordinates with the information necessary for intelligent action. Obviously, the more an individual knows about his or her own work and environment, the more intelligently they can work.

 

v. Controlling: The managerial function of control is the measurement and correction of performance in order to ensure that the company's objectives are accomplished as plan. The function involved three steps:-

 

         Establishment of standards: Standards are criteria against which actual results can be measured. They can be physical and represent quantities of products or materials, or they can be stated in monetary terms, such as costs and income. All these standards are used as the basis for the second step.

 

         Measurement of performance: This involves the comparison of actual results with those planned.

 

         Correction of deviations: When organised planning and control procedures are operated, it is relatively easy to expose deviations and to apply corrective measures. Feedback is central to the correction of deviation; this informational input provides the basis for all operational decision regarding the non-achievement of the plans.

 

3. Various sections of garment industry

 

3

3.1 Design Department

The design department can be considered as the research and development department of a clothing factory, because it is in this department that the prototypes of garments are developed and prepared for selling and production. For most factories the process of product development involves seven stages:

 

i.        Forecasting: This stage commences with the evaluation and interpretation of the market's future needs in terms of fashion and price. Apart from intuition and common sense, these forecasts are based on the accumulated knowledge, expertise and experience of the company to make a fairly accurate prediction of the types of garments customers will buy and the prices they will be willing to pay.

 

ii.      Designing: In garment manufacturing, the first step is designing the sketch for the dresses that have to be prepared. For this purpose the designer first draws several rough sketches in the sketch book. The designer does not go for details at this moment but rather lets creativity flow on the paper. There may be many sketches. Later, these sketches are analysed by a panel of designers. They finally select a few of them. These sketches are rendered in detail separately or in the form of a single collection. The designer also draws working drawings along with the sketch. Working drawings are flat drawing of the sketch and it helps pattern maker understand the patterns involved in the construction.

 

iii.    Collection Planning: This process is actually the pre-production phase of sampling, and the objectives are to set out in detail the styles, fabrics and colours which will represent the company's proposals for the forthcoming season. The designer works in close cooperation with the marketing department and together they attempt to determine the best possible style, fabric and price combinations for company's customer.

 

After approval of the design, finalised plan becomes operative and the actual production of samples begins.

 

iv.    Pattern making: This function connects design to production by producing paper templates for all the components, such as cloth, lining and fusible, which have to be cut for a garment. Industrial pattern making has two basic stages, the block pattern and the garment pattern.

 

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The block pattern can be created by either flat method.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Garment pattern: The styled patterns used for cutting the original sample garments can be developed by a variety of means, including the flat method, modelling or a combination of both. When using the flat method, the pattern maker superimposes the style lines of the garment on to a copy of the block pattern, performs the necessary manipulations and then adds the requisite sewing and other allowances to each component. Notches are made in the seam lines as guides for alignment and matching during sewing. Nowadays the conventional methods of pattern construction are gradually being replaced by computerised system.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/></v:shapetype><v:shape id="_x0000_s1027" type="#_x0000_t75" style='position:absolute; left:0;text-align:left;margin-left:0;margin-top:6.7pt;width:153.35pt;height:123.85pt; z-index:2;mso-position-horizontal:left'> <v:imagedata src="https://static.fibre2fashion.com/articleresources/images/77/7665/5_files/image001.jpg" o:title="4"/> <w:wrap type="square"/></v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img width="204" height="165" src="https://static.fibre2fashion.com/articleresources/images/77/7665/5_files/image002.jpg" align="left" hspace="12" v:shapes="_x0000_s1027" /><!--[endif]--><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_s1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='position:absolute;left:0; text-align:left;margin-left:0;margin-top:1.45pt;width:3in;height:131.75pt; z-index:1;mso-position-horizontal:left'> <v:imagedata src="https://static.fibre2fashion.com/articleresources/images/77/7665/5_files/image003.jpg" o:title="3"/> <w:wrap type="square"/></v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img width="288" height="176" src="https://static.fibre2fashion.com/articleresources/images/77/7665/5_files/image004.jpg" align="left" hspace="12" v:shapes="_x0000_s1026" /><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.0in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia; mso-fareast-font-family:georgia">i.<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>        </span></span></b><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">Technology: </span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">Irrespective of the techniques and methods used to construct the patterns, an important factor which must be considered at this stage is the technological capability of the factory and what it can or cannot produce. It is possible that a new style feature requires the use of a special type of machine which the factory does not possess, and this is the time when decisions have to be made as to whether this particular item of equipment should be purchased, or whether an acceptable substitute can be found from what is available in the factory or whether minor modifications to the design pattern will allow existing machinery to be utilised. These technological considerations will apply not only to sewing but also to other manufacturing processes. The question is not how much money will be lost by purchasing the equipment, but rather how much essential business might be lost if the equipment in not purchased.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia; mso-fareast-font-family:georgia">ii.<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span></b><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Production of sample garments: </span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">Sample garments are usually produced by a small unit supervised by the pattern maker and/or the designer, and this unit has an important role in determining the result of the forthcoming season. Sampling is a continual process in the clothing industry. During the development of new products the following element arises.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">New materials and process have to be experimented with to establish their suitability for mass production.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">The production garment patterns have to be altered and perfected to rectify faults discovered during the making-up of the samples.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><o:p> </o:p></p> </div> <!--5.htm Page End --><!-- 6.htm Page Start --> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1252" /><meta name="ProgId" content="Word.Document" /><meta name="Generator" content="Microsoft Word 11" /><meta name="Originator" content="Microsoft Word 11" /><link rel="File-List" href="6_files/filelist.xml" /><link rel="Edit-Time-Data" href="6_files/editdata.mso" /><!--[if !mso]><style> v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} </style><![endif]--><title /><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>SYSTEM</o:Author> <o:Template>Normal</o:Template> <o:LastAuthor>SYSTEM</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>1</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>0</o:TotalTime> <o:Created>2015-12-14T08:42:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2015-12-14T08:42:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>1</o:Pages> <o:Words>385</o:Words> <o:Characters>2087</o:Characters> <o:Company>SANBLUEENTERPRISES</o:Company> <o:Lines>47</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>15</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>2457</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>11.5606</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles></xml><![endif]--><style><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Wingdings; 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mso-list-template-ids:962394438 67698701 67698691 67698693 67698689 67698691 67698693 67698689 67698691 67698693;} @list l2:level1 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0FC; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} ol {margin-bottom:0in;} ul {margin-bottom:0in;} --></style><!--[if gte mso 10]><style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Georgia"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"/></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> <div class="Section1"> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">At the sampling stage the quantities of fabric and trimmings are established and a quick costing made. Sometimes the designer and pattern maker will decide to alter a pattern to reduce the amount of material and/or labour required, if the projected cost of the original design exceeds the forecast price.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">The finished sample garments undergo a thorough scrutiny to evaluate whether they fit in with the overall picture the company wants to present in this particular collection. It is at this stage that sample garments are accepted or rejected.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">As each sample is approved, its cost must be accurately calculated in order to determine the selling price and whether it fits into the, planned price framework for that type of garment. The costing sheet or bill of materials of a garment is a very important document because it contains all the data required to plan, produce and control its production. From a sales and production point of view, sampling is probably the most important of the pre-production activities.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l2 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Pattern grading</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">: is the process whereby patterns of different sizes are</span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/></v:shapetype><v:shape id="_x0000_s1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='position:absolute; left:0;text-align:left;margin-left:186.8pt;margin-top:13.85pt;width:173.5pt; height:118.1pt;z-index:1;mso-position-horizontal:right; mso-position-horizontal-relative:margin;mso-position-vertical-relative:text'> <v:imagedata src="https://static.fibre2fashion.com/articleresources/images/77/7665/6_files/image001.jpg" o:title="5"/> <w:wrap type="square" anchorx="margin"/></v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img width="231" height="157" src="https://static.fibre2fashion.com/articleresources/images/77/7665/6_files/image002.jpg" align="right" hspace="12" v:shapes="_x0000_s1026" /><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"> produced from the original master pattern. Grading is the process of increasing or decreasing the sample size production pattern to complete the size range of patterns. Patterns provide for different sizes, for example, size 10 is made in 12, 14, 15 sizes. Patterns are graded according to size charts which represents the sizes and average measurement of the population group for which the garments are intended. The charts can be supplied by customers of can be those used by the factory. This process can be performed either manually or automatically by a computerised system. <o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">3.2 Marketing Department<o:p /></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">The marketing department carries out three major functions which depending on the size and organisational structure of the company, may be combined or may be separate entities within the department. These primary functions are:<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>     </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Marketing</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:georgia">: This is the common name for all the activities (development of marketing calendar which will provides the operational framework for a season and sets out key marketing events ; product pricing; product planning; to finalise types of retail and wholesale organisation s which are buyers of clothing) involved in directing the flow of goods from producers to consumers . The marketing function is concerned with defining the characteristics of the company's actual potential markets and promoting the company's product and image.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><o:p> </o:p></p> </div> <!--6.htm Page End --><!-- 7.htm Page Start --> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1252" /><meta name="ProgId" content="Word.Document" /><meta name="Generator" content="Microsoft Word 11" /><meta name="Originator" content="Microsoft Word 11" /><link rel="File-List" href="7_files/filelist.xml" /><title /><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>SYSTEM</o:Author> <o:Template>Normal</o:Template> <o:LastAuthor>SYSTEM</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>1</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>0</o:TotalTime> <o:Created>2015-12-14T08:42:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2015-12-14T08:42:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>1</o:Pages> <o:Words>434</o:Words> <o:Characters>2348</o:Characters> <o:Company>SANBLUEENTERPRISES</o:Company> <o:Lines>53</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>16</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>2766</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>11.5606</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles></xml><![endif]--><style><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Wingdings; 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mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.5in; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} ol {margin-bottom:0in;} ul {margin-bottom:0in;} --></style><!--[if gte mso 10]><style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Georgia"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style><![endif]--> <div class="Section1"> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>     </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Merchandising</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:georgia">:<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"> </b>This is a specific activity which concerns itself with product development, overall production strategy and the delivery of merchandise to customers (packing the orders when necessary; deciding on the appropriate methods of transportation such as sea or air containers, parcel services or own transport facility; ensuring that garments are delivered with a fresh and attractive appearance). During a boom season, there could be sudden influx of orders and the merchandiser would have to allocate production priorities and attempt to wholly or partially satisfy customers who are crying out for merchandise.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>     </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Sales</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">: The primary elements of the sales process are :<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Approaching established or potential customers;<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Pre-determining their requirements where possible.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Making a sales presentation (making oral presentations which showing the company's samples).<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Answering question and/orsetting objections;<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Getting the customer to place an order;<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Following up after the merchandise has been delivered to check that the customers is satisfied.<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">3.3 Finance Department<o:p /></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">The finance department is responsible for managing all financial and administrative affairs of a company. The financing of a company's operations require very precise, timely planning and control in order to ensure that adequate funds and credits are available when needed. Apart from the money to pay suppliers, salaries, expenses, available funds, stock of raw materials and finished goods, imports, exports, the credit lines extended to customers, negotiating and issuing tenders for major projects, purchasing office furniture and equipment are handled by this department. Some of the important functions performed by this department are:<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Providing management information</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">: The finance department is directly responsible for providing management with up-to-date information on the current and furniture financial status of the company. So that management is enabled to take more effective decisions.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Budgeting:</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:georgia"> The objective of budgeting is to plan and control the company's activities so as to maximise profitability.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Garment costing:</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"> The costing is the 'identity card' of the garment and contains all the information required for the preproduction and production stages of making of the garment. It includes cost of material, labour, fixed and variable overheads and other expenses.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span style="font-family:georgia">Administration:</span></b><span style="font-family: georgia"> Another aspect of finance departments worked is concerned with administration, which covers a wide range of subjects. Example preparing orders to supply, imports and exports; tenders etc. A clothing business has 'up-front' departments such as design, marketing and production and the fact that they can function smoothly is generally the result of good administrative support in the background.</span></p> </div> <!--7.htm Page End --><!-- 8.htm Page Start --> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1252" /><meta name="ProgId" content="Word.Document" /><meta name="Generator" content="Microsoft Word 11" /><meta name="Originator" content="Microsoft Word 11" /><link rel="File-List" href="8_files/filelist.xml" /><title>3

3.4 Purchasing Department:

The primary objective of the purchasing department is to obtain the right materials, in the right quantity, at the right time and price. Since purchased materials are the largest components in the cost of a garment, purchasing is an extremely important and specialist function within a clothing company.

 

The main functions of the purchasing department are:-

      Information: - The purchasing office is the company's 'window on the world' and provides information to all concerned regarding new products, materials and services.

 

      Suppliers: - Purchasing department ensures that the supplier is stable and reliable. This is particularly important where a new supplier does not have a known track record.

 

      Prices: - While the price, quality and quantity of materials are usually specified by the operations department, the purchase must be made at the most advantageous terms for the company. Other terms and conditions such as freight costs, insurance, discounts and credit terms are also negotiates before the order is placed.

 

      Progressing: - This is concerned with ensuring that the ordered materials arrive at the correct time, without any hold-up caused by the late or non-delivery of raw material. This system employed to progress orders can be manual or computerises, and is basically a diary detailing the orders placed and their confirmed delivery date.

 

      Verification: - In a well managed business, a standard procedure is to check that prices, quantities, colour, etc. Of delivered materials agree with the particulars specified in purchase order. The storekeeper checks quantities and the materials are then specified by quantity assurance personnel. If everything is found to be in order, the purchasing department approves the supplier's invoice for payment on the due date.

 

      Speculative buying: - When market conditions are particularly favourable, the purchasing department may recommend ordering materials such as fusible, linings and sewing threads which are not required for immediate use but there are chances that later on these materials would become difficult to obtain, or there will be a sharp increase in their price.

 

      Storekeeping: - The storekeeping staff is basically responsible for the receiving, storage and issuing of materials.

 

         Receives goods inward and checks them according to procedure specified by the purchasing department.

 

         Stores the goods so that no deterioration or damage occurs through, say, exposure to sunlight or crushing.

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font-family:georgia">Issue the material and trimmings according to calculated amounts rather than by rounded-up figures which are sometimes more convenient to handle.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.75in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Stock management: -</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"> To maintain and provide accurate and up-to date information on the stock levels of all items. This information is essential for the purchasing department because it dictates the frequency and type of order placed with suppliers.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Purchasing order: -</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"> This is a mean by which the company places orders with suppliers. 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Purchasing department issue one of two types of purchasing order:<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">One-time order: - </span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">This is an order for a material or trim which will not usually be repeats; for example, an order for a batch of cloth which will be used for only one style.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify;text-indent:-.25in; mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:wingdings;mso-fareast-font-family:wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family:wingdings">✔<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>      </span></span><!--[endif]--><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Stock level orders:-</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"> These are placed for items used by the factory throughout the year and where a minimum stock level has to be maintained, such as stationary, pins, chalks, pattern paper and spares for sewing machines.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:.5in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">3.5 Production Department<o:p /></span></b></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">In a small factory, the owner and the production manager are responsible for all activities within the factory, which include:<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight:normal"><o:p /></b></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Output of the factory<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Garment quality<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Working methods and technology<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Materials and trim purchasing<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify;text-indent: -.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:symbol">•<span style='font:7.0pt "georgia"'>         </span></span><!--[endif]--><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt; font-family:georgia">Labour recruitment and training.<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="margin-left:1.25in;text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">This type of organisation is usually very effective when the product range is kept small and the products themselves are relatively simple. As production becomes more complex, the knowledge necessary for the detailed management of a large production department is beyond the ability of one person. Consequently specialist functions are created to provide the depth knowledge required and to narrow the fields of responsibility. In a large firm the production department has three main functions:<o:p /></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"><o:p> </o:p></span></p> <p class="NoSpacing" style="text-align:justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia">Manufacturing: -</span></b><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:georgia"> These are concerned with the actual production of garments and include:<o:p /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><o:p> </o:p></p> </div> <!--9.htm Page End --></body></html>