Cotton ham fabrics can be dyed with natural dyestuffs obtained from waste hazelnut leaves in different colours and shades. In this study, natural dyes obtained by extraction of hazelnut leaves were dyed by using five different mordant materials produced from 100 per cent 30/1 raw cotton fibre. After painting, colour scales were formed and fastness studies performed. The colours obtained can be used easily in cotton knitted fabrics in terms of washing, rubbing, perspiration fastness and pilling. In formaldehyde, heavy metal and azo dyestuff tests, formaldehyde heavy metal and azo groups were not found in the products.


We aimed to determine the colours obtained from dyeing cotton knitted fabrics with hazelnut leaves by applying mordant free and co-mordant method and to find the fastness values of the colours obtained from the colour palette. At the same time, the effect of the increase in the amount of mordant on dyeing was also examined and its effect on fastness properties examined.


     Five mortars of the hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) plant in autumn

     30/1 single jersey cotton fabric

     potassium dichromate

     Iron (III) chloride, copper (II) sulphate, tin chloride, aluminum potassium sulphate

     Corylus Avellana leaves collected from the vinicity of Yazılıgurgen village of Karapurcek district of Sakarya province


To obtain natural dyestuff, 15 grams of hazelnut leaves were first boiled in 500 ml of water and then left to cool for a day. 30/1 single jersey 100 per cent cotton fabric was used for dyeing. From the natural dye stock solution, it was dyed according to the mordant technique by processing based on the dyeing chart in the ratio of 1:20 liquor. The dyeing process was completed by performing cold and hot washing. Dyeing was started by placing the fabric, dye solution and mordant in the sample dyeing machine at room temperature. It was processed for 60 minutes at dyeing temperature. It was overflowed with cold water and then washed and dried in the oven.


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Figure 1 : The Resulting Colors

It was seen that the colours obtained are commonly used in the textile industry. Light medium and dark colours can be obtained with the dye solution obtained as a result of the extraction. When the mordant substance used changed, the resulting colours also changed.

Washing fastness of the sample without mordant gave better results.

When we evaluated the rubbing fastness in general, the dyeing gave decent results. When the dry rub fastness was evaluated, there was no difference between dyeing with and without mordant. When wet rubbing fastness was evaluated, dyeing with mordant gave better results than dyeing without mordant.

When we evaluated the Martindale abrasion test overall, the dyeing worked well. When the abrasion test results were evaluated, there was no difference between dyeing with and without mordant. Considering the type of mordant used, copper (II) sulphate mordant material created an adverse effect on the textile product used compared to other mordant materials and causes pilling on the fabric surface.

When we evaluated the acidic and alkaline perspiration fastness results, the dyeing gave good results. When the alkaline perspiration fastness results were evaluated, there was no difference between the dyeing with and without mordant. When we evaluated the mordant type used, it was observed that all the mordant varieties had the same effect.


Colour diversity is provided with different mordants. In addition, its fastness to use gives good results. In general, it has been found that hazelnut leaves are a decent source for dyeing cotton fabric.

About the authors: The authors work at the Akar Tekstil research and development centre, Izmir, Turkey.


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