Compact spinning - Innovation of 21st century

Written by: V. N. Balakrishnan

Ring Spinning, still the most acceptable yarn spinning system, has undergone several changes to improve quality and productivity during these years. However, a major revolutionary change has taken place in 1999, Compacting System.


Much has been said about this great system and the tremendous population growth speaks about its acceptability and benefits. Today, more than 5 million compact spindles are working satisfactorily with a major contribution from SUESSEN EliTe.


Looking at the speed at which compact is conquering the textile spinning industry, it is clear that this is going to be a normal spinning system for tomorrow. The tremendous benefits of this system are fully exploited both by yarn manufacturers as well as end users. 

Compact spinning, the system that ensures better optimum utilisation of costly raw material with minimum loss and damages to the fibre improves the yarn quality tremendously, more importantly on the hairiness aspect.     This helps the weaver, besides less consumption of costly wet processing ingredients, with better machine efficiency particularly on looms and with a much cleaner atmosphere.    Contribution of compact yarn in making dense fabrics is quite rewarding. 


Yarn quality improvement in our count ranges, ie., Ne 30s to 120s, achieved over a period is summarised as under:


Table No.1:
Summary of difference in yarn quality parameters of various compact/normal yarn counts after winding:


Count (Ne)

U% increase (unit)

IPI Increase%

RKM diff%

Elongation diff%

UT-3 H increase%

Zweigle S3 increase%

50/1 combed weaving (compact)

+0.1

20

0.0

+2.0

+17.7

+457

50/1 combed weaving (Normal)

+0.7

50

+0.7

+2.7

+15.0

+88

60/1 combed weaving (compact)

+0.1

22

-1.9

0.0

+8.9

+377

60/1 combed weaving (Normal)

+0.5

62

+0.4

0.0

+16.4

+79

70/1 combed weaving (compact)

0.0

24

+2.7

+5.1

+7.7

+380

70/1 combed weaving (Normal)

+0.3

65

-1.1

+4.5

+25

+140

80/1 combed weaving (compact)

+0.1

22

+0.7

0.0

+23.6

+896

80/1 combed weaving (Normal)

+0.4

62

-0.4

+4.9

+17.7

+84

100/1 combed hosiery (compact)

+0.1

25

+1.8

+3.3

+7.5

+208

100/1 combed hosiery (Normal)

+0.5

82

-0.8

+2.0

+16.7

+77

Overall average of Compact yarn

+0.1

23

+0.8

+2.0

+13.0

+463

Overall average of Normal ring spun yarn

+0.5

64

-1.2

+2.8

+18.2

+94


Hairiness: by Zweigle S3 value 60 to 80%, by Uster H - 20 to 30%.

Strength: improvement in RKM - 10 to 18%,

Elongation: improvement 10 to 15%

Unevenness: 0.3 to 0.6 reductions in U%.

IPI: 20 to 35% reduction in Imperfections. 

Ring Frame Breaks: 40 to 50% reduction in ends down  

 

GTN group has installed the first SUESSEN EliTeRing Spinning Machine as early as 1999 with just 3,000 spindles and today the group is at almost 80,000 spindles. Counts ranging from Ne30s to 120s are regularly manufactured, practically maintaining the same normal Ring Frame speed, with far better yarn quality parameters.


Cop to cone increase in imperfections.


Upon the introduction of automatic winders two decades ago, a significant increase in yarn imperfections and hairiness was noticed in the final yarn, especially in counts above Ne 50s. Counts like Ne 100s and Ne 120s, the increase in imperfections was as high as 80 - 120%. This phenomenon of abnormal increase in imperfections was taken up with manufacturers of automatic winders as well as lab equipment manufacturers and several trials were conducted over these years. In spite of the best efforts by the manufacturers of automatic winders, no substantial reduction could be achieved till now.


But, with the compact yarn, the adverse effect on the yarn quality after the winding process was found significantly reduced. For a spinner like us, who is marketing yarn in the cone form, it was a great relief. This advantage is accrued only due to the substantially lower hairiness in the parent compact cop yarns. In table 2 we have summarised the yarn deterioration in quality of both compact and normal yarns after cone winding


Table No.2: Summary of difference in yarn quality parameters of various compact wondertwist yarn counts after winding (cop to cone)

 

Count (Ne)

U% increase (unit)

IPI Increase%

RKM diff%

Elongation diff

%

UT-3 H increase%

Zweigle

S3 increase

%

80/2 combed weaving

wondertwist

-0.1

17

2.2

1.8

3.4

319

100/2 combed weaving

wondertwist

-0.1

15

2.2

5.0

4.8

350

Overall average of wondertwist

-0.1

16

2.2

3.4

4.1

335

 

As can be seen, there is a tremendous reduction in IPI increase in the Compact Yarn in all the counts compared to normal yarn, without any exception. However as far as hairiness is concerned, the increase in Zweigle S3 values is much higher than normal spun yarn; however the same trend is not noticed in UT3 Hairiness values. Of course the S3 value of compact cone yarn is still lower by 50% of normal cone yarn.


The data used in the table is the overall average of the yarn quality tested at Ring Frame Bobbin stage and cone from the Autoconer for a period of two years. 


 

EliTwistTechnology


We have added small capacity of EliTwistSpindles and commercial production started recently in super fine counts and yarn is marketed under the brand WONDERTWIST.


Table No.3

Count (Ne)

80/2 CW-WT (TM-4.0)

80/2 CWR (TM-4.0)

80/2 CWFG (TM-4.0)

% diff w.r.t.

% diff w.r.t.

Remarks


Wondertwist yarn

normal doubled yarn

normal
gassed yarn

normal doubled yarn

normal
gassed yarn

UTJ Results:






Single yarn strength (cN)

477.3

425.6

464.9



Rkm

33.0

29.4

32.1

+12.2

+2.8

Rkm CV%

6.6

7.1

7.2



Elongation%

5.7

5.1

5.2

+11.8

+9.6

Elongation CV%

5.7

8.7

6.4



B-work(cN.cm)

714.8

591.2

643.8

+20.9

+11.0

UT-3B Results:






U%

8.4

8.5

8.3

-0.1 unit

+0.1 unit

Thin places (-50%)/km

0

0

0



Thick places (+50%)/km

6

3

3

+100

+100

Neps (+200%)/km

19

13

10

+46

+90

IPI/km (Normal sen.)

25

16

13

+56.2

+92

Thin places (-40%)/km

8

7

5



Thick places (+35%/km

51

53

47



Neps (+140%)/km

79

101

75



IPI/km (Higher sen.)

138

161

127

-14

+8

Hairiness H

3.1

4.9

2.6

-36.7

+19.2

Hairiness sh

0.6

1.0

0.5



Classimat results:






Total classimat faults

95.0

51.0

50.0

+86.3

+90

Objectionable faults

1.2

0.1

0.0



Slub

1.4

0.1

0.0



Zweigle Results:






S3

383.2

544.8

43.1

-29.7

+800

S3 CV%

16.5

34.6

39



 

Initially, the customers were hesitant to use this new concept yarn and have been informing that the real doubled yarn effect is achieved in final finished fabric with this yarn. However later on, a few of them, realizing the price/ performance advantage, started consuming. Here again, the education of the end users to exploit the tremendous advantage of this yarn is to be undertaken by both yarn and m/c manufacturer. As far as a spinner is concerned, the elimination of assembly winder and double yarn twisting, result in saving in investment, power, labour, space etc. the end user is also benefited by lower yarn price with well acclaimed advantages of compact yarn. 


The above results are limited in scope; also a strict comparison of cop to cone, as done earlier, could not be done, as the process involved here is different and not identical.


Despite the increase in S3 hairiness being high, the hairiness level of this yarn is far lower than RING DOUBLED AND TFO twisted yarns- thanks to compacting!


 

The table no. 3 and 4 show the difference in yarn qualities with respect to traditional doubled yarn and gassed yarn. Form these limited comparative studies, the superiority of EliTwistYarn with respect to RKM and elongation is well proved. Hairiness, obviously, is lower in EliTwistYarn compared to twisted grey yarn. However, gassed yarn hairiness is definitely lower than the EliTwistYarn. Similarly Classimat faults are also high in EliTwistYarn. However, looking to the greater scope of this system and resultant yarn, we are of the opinion that this yarn can replace conventional doubled yarn in certain sectors of end use.


Table No.4

Count (Ne)

100/2 CW-WT (TM-4.0)

100/2 CWR (TM-4.0)

100/2 CWFG (TM-4.0)

% diff w.r.t.

% diff w.r.t.

Remarks


Wondertwist yarn

normal doubled yarn

normal gassed yarn

normal doubled yarn

normal gassed yarn

UTJ Results:






Single yarn strength (cN)

374.7

319.9

347.5



Rkm

32.4

27.6

30.0

+17.4

+8.0

Rkm CV%

7.7

7.8

8.1



Elongation%

5.6

4.9

4.8

+14.3

+16.7

Elongation CV%

6.0

7.2

7.6



B-work (cN.cm)

578.4

269.3

475.8



UT-3B Results:






U%

9.1

9.6

9.2

-0.5 unit

-0.1 unit

Thin places (-50%)/km

1

0

0



Thick places (+50%)/km

12

8

7



Neps (+200%)/km

46

42

26



IPI/km (Normal sen.)

59

50

33

+18

+78

Thin places (-40%)/km

32

23

32



Thick places (+35%/km

95

79

101



Neps (+140%)/km

164

140

161



IPI/km (Higher sen.)

290

242

294



Hairiness H

2.6

3.0

2.4

-13

+8

Hairiness sh

0.5

0.7

0.5



Classimat results:






Total classimat faults

161

50.0

63.0

+222

+155

Objectionable faults

2.0

0.2

0.1



Slub

2.2

0.0

0.1



Zweigle Results:






S3

266.6

1195.0

22.9

-78

+1056

S3 CV%

22.0

14.1

39.8




About the Author:

The author is currently working in GTN Textiles Ltd., Cochin; as a Senior Vice President Operations. He can be contacted at mktg.ho@gtntextiles.com .

To know more about the company please visit www.gtntextiles.com



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