Size of Textile Industry in India
• The textile industry in India covers a wide gamut of activities ranging from production of raw material like cotton, jute, silk and wool to providing high value-added products such as fabrics and garments to consumers.
• The industry uses a wide variety of fibres ranging from natural fibres like cotton, jute, silk and wool to man made fibres like polyester, viscose, acrylic and multiple blends of such fibres and filament yarn.
• The textile industry plays a significant role in Indian economy by providing direct employment to an estimated 35 million people, by contributing 4 per cent of GDP and accounting for 35 per cent of gross export earnings. The textile sector contributes 14 per cent of the value-addition in the manufacturing sector.
• Textile exports during the period of April-February 2003-2004 amounted to $11,698.5 million as against $11,142.2 million during the same period in the previous year, showing an increase of around 5 per cent.
• Estimates say that the textile sector might achieve about 15 to 18 per cent growth this year following dismantling of MFA.
ROLE OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN THE ECONOMY
Textile industry plays a significant role in the economy. The Indian textile industry is one of the largest and most important sectors in the economy in terms of output, foreign exchange earnings and employment in India. It contributes 20 per cent of industrial production, 9 per cent of excise collections, 18 per cent of employment in industrial sector, nearly 20 per cent to the country’s total export earnings and 4 per cent ton the GDP. The sector employs nearly 35 million people and is the second highest employer in the country. The textile sector also has a direct link with the rural economy and performance of major fibre crops and crafts such as cotton, wool, silk, handicrafts and handlooms, which employ millions of farmers and crafts persons in rural and semi-urban areas. It has been estimated that one out of every six households in the country depends directly or indirectly on this sector.
India has several advantages in the textile sector, including abundant availability of raw material and labour. It is the second largest player in the world cotton trade. It has the largest cotton acreage, of about nine million hectares and is the third largest producer of cotton fibre in the world. It ranks fourth in terms of staple fibre production and fourth in polyester yarn production. The textile industry is also labour intensive, thus India has an advantage.
The key advantages of the Indian industry are:
• India is the third largest producer of cotton with the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world. It has an edge in low cost cotton sourcing compared to other countries.
• Average wage rates in India are 50-60 per cent lower than that in developed countries, thus enabling India to benefit from global outsourcing trends in labour intensive businesses such as garments and home textiles.
• Design and fashion capabilities are key strengths that will enable Indian players to strengthen their relationships with global retailers and score over their Chinese competitors.
• Production facilities are available across the textile value chain, from spinning to garments manufacturing. The industry is investing in technology and increasing its capacities which should prove a major asset in the years to come.
• Large Indian players such as Arvind Mills, Welspun India, Alok Industries and Raymonds have established themselves as 'quality producers' in the global market. This recognition would further enable India to leverage its position among global retailers.
• India has gathered experience in terms of working with global brands and this should benefit Indian vendors.
With a view to raise India's share in the global textiles trade to 10 per cent by 2015 (from the current 3 per cent), the Ministry of Textiles proposes 50 new textile parks. Out of the 50, 30 have been already sanctioned by the government (with a cost of US$ 710 million). Set up under the Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP), this initiative will not only make the industry cost competitive, but will also enhance manufacturing capacity in the sector.