Fabric that is certified
as FR has been topically treated in an immersion process with a chemical fire
retardant after the fabric has been woven. All cottons and other natural fibers
certified as flame retardant are FR topically treated. Some synthetic fabrics
are also topically treated. Because the treatment is topical, it will wear out
in time, and repeated cleanings will cause the flame retardancy to dissolve
sooner. Most flame proofing chemicals are water soluble and will also dissipate
through dry cleaning. Draperies made from FR fabrics should be re-tested
periodically for flame retardancy, as retreatment may be required. For this
reason, FR flame retardancy is certified for only one year.
Fabric flammability is an
important issue to consider, especially for drapery that will be used in a
public space such as a school, theatre or special event venue, since federal
regulations require that drapery fabrics used in such spaces be certified as
fire retardant. Although all fabric will burn, some are naturally more
resistant to fire than others. Those that are more flammable can have their
fire resistance drastically improved by treatment with flame retardant
Certain synthetic fibers
are extremely flame resistant, including glass fibers and modacrylic. Other
synthetics, including certain polyesters, are slow to ignite and may even
self-extinguish. Natural fibers typically do not melt. Wool and silk burn
slowly, are difficult to ignite, and may self-extinguish. With other untreated
natural fabrics, such as cotton and linen, the fabric can ignite quickly,
resulting in a fast moving flame spread. Fabrics that include a combination of
natural and synthetic fibers, such as polyester-cotton blends, can be
particularly troublesome, as they combine the fast ignition and flame spread of
the natural fiber with the melting aspect of the synthetic fiber.
The ignition and burn
factors of fabric are also affected by the weight and weave of the fabric.
Lightweight, loose weave fabrics will burn more quickly than heavier fabrics
with a tight weave.In addition, fabric flammability can also be affected by the
fabrics surface texture, with napped fabrics (such as velvets and velours)
igniting more easily than fabrics with a smooth surface.
About the Author:
Authors are students of Govt.Poly.Solapur
paper was also presented at event under national level grand fiesta
PRAGYAA-2010 Department of Textile Technology of S
G G S I E &T., Nanded.