Technology of Denim Production: Part-I (Yarn Manufacturing Techniques for Denim)
The term "Denim" has developed from the city of Nimes in France denim was produced for the first time. In the nineteenth century heavy
cotton fabrics were produced in the Rhone Valley region of France. These fabrics were known as tissue de Nimes and Blue de Genes. The term denim
and jeans derive from these designations.
The classical denim is a heavy fabric made from 100% cotton and
woven from coarse indigo dyed warp and grey undyed weft yarn. The traditional
denim is hard-wearing, high density fabrics with a high mass per unit area and
a 3/1 or 2/1- twill weave construction.
Denim is available in attractive indigo blue shades and is
made for a variety of applications and in a wide range of qualities and shades.
Classical denim is made from 100% cotton dyed with Indigo blue shades. Besides
classic indigo blue, denim is also dyed in other fashion shades and colors, the
most popular being black denim. Denim is comfortable, fashionable, affordable
and durable and popular in all the age group. Denim is available in different
weight ranges from 6 16 oz/sq yd which is categories as light denim 10-12
oz/sq yd., heavy denim 14-16 oz/sq. yd.
In order to produce good quality denim, the yarn quality
used for denim production should be optimal. In rope and slasher dyeing
machine the passage of yarn is very long. Hence it is necessary to control the
lapping of yarn in the passage of yarn, otherwise bands of high and low
densities will be formed in the yarn, which ultimately cause shade variation in
the fabric. This leads huge loss of fabric. Therefore the TM of the yarn is to
be appropriate to avoid any snarling of yarn during running through the
passage. The yarn should be free of weak place, to avoid any breakages during
dyeing. Long slub, thick and thin places in the yarn may leads to prominent
fabric defects in the fabric, as denim is a contrast fabric made of indigo blue
warp and grey weft yarn. The weft yarn hairiness should be low, otherwise high
yarn hairiness and major variation in yarn hairiness shown weft bands which is
a major fabric defects. Higher yarn neps may also cause serious fabric defects.
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About the Author:
author is Manager (TQM) at Shri Lakshmi Cotsyn Limited, UPSIDC Industrial
Area, Malwan, Dist. Fatehpur, UP