An important and target aspect of the fiber-to-yarn production process is the quality and price of the resulting yarn. The yarn should have optimal product characteristics, while maintaining as low a price as possible. To meet this target, Giza 85 Egyptian cotton variety, was chosen and blended with Sudanese Upland cotton (Acala) and also, with Greek Upland cotton. Ten different combinations of blend levels including the 100 % fiber types were performed for two different spinning systems, open-end yarn counts of 25 Ne and 35 Ne and also, 30 Ne and 40Ne for ring spinning, at constant twist multiplier 4.0.
Giza 85, Egyptian cotton variety is of higher quality than the two upland cotton varieties especially in fiber strength, length uniformity, fiber fineness, and elongation while of low spinning waste. The addition of different ratios of Giza 85 cotton fiber improved the mechanical properties of the Greek and Sudanese cotton yarns. The Uster provisional 5%, 25% and 50% yarn strength quality levels were suggested for using the Egyptian/Greek or Sudanese cotton blending, in order to achieve optimum yarn quality properties and to reduce and control the raw material cost. The spinners cost could be reduced by trying different combinations of cotton qualities until matching the one that still allows for the required yarn properties is found.
Keyword: Egyptian and Upland cotton, blend, ring and open spinning system
An important and target aspect of the fiber-to-yarn production process is the quality and price of the resulting yarn. The yarn should have optimal product characteristics, while maintaining as low a price as possible.
Cotton yarns classed internationally into three categories: (1) coarse yarns: of count up to 24s. Such counts could be spun from MS and MLS cottons, to be used for manufacturing cheap fabrics, towels, upholstery fabrics, etc.; (2) Medium yarns: of count 24 up to 42s. Such count could be spun from MLS cottons, to be used for manufacturing cheap poplins, knitting fabrics, etc.; (3) Fine yarns: of count 42 up to 60s and above. Such counts could be spun from LS and ELS cottons, to be used for manufacturing high quality poplins and clothes, Abdel-Salam (1998). Blending of two or more different fiber types is of crucial significance to the textile industry, Cookson (2000) reported that several interrelated factors might contribute to the decision to replace a homogeneous textile material by a blend:
- Economy: The decrease of an expensive fiber by blending with a cheaper one.
- Durability: The incorporation of a more durable component to extend the useful life of a less durable fiber.
- Physical properties: A compromise to take advantage of desirable performance characteristics contributed by both fiber components.
- Color: The ability to develop novel designs incorporating multi-color effects.
- Appearance: The attainment of attractive appearance and tactile qualities using combinations of yarns with, for example, different luster.
Fiber blending is the process of combining different fiber components, together either of the same fiber type or of different fiber types to produce a fiber strand (sliver or yarn) of consistent desirable characteristics. The economical impact of fiber blending is well recognized. The cost of raw material is the most important economical factor in the make of a spun yarn. The smallest saving in the cost of raw material could mean a substantial increase in the companys profit. Proper fiber blending can lead to a substantial reduction in the cost of yarn manufacturing. A textile process may use different types of cotton with different quality attributes and prices. The process of fiber blending should aim at optimizing the cost of the cotton mix with respect to the desired levels of fiber properties and inventory constraints, El Mogahzy (2000).
One of the important production processes in the textile industry is the spinning process. Starting with cotton fibers, yarns are (usually) created on a rotor or ring-spinning machine. The quality of the resulting yarn is very important in determining their possible applications. The three most important characteristics of a yarn are: tenacity, elongation and corresponding price. The first two characteristics are physical yarn characteristics, while the third is the price of producing the yarn. The price depends on the blend of fiber qualities used in the fiber-to-yarn production process, van Langenhove (2002).