Methods of wet application of finishes on fabrics are mostly either by exhaustion techniques or by padding concentrated solution and depend on the substrate and the feasibility of adopting either of the processes. Applications by foam applicator by spray techniques are common in the case of made up garments.
Whereas padding method of application is feasible for all softeners, exhaust method of application is possible only where the softener has good substantivity. However high substantivity could cause tailing in a pad box application and requires to be controlled - discussed under padding method of application.
Softeners are the most employed finishing agents either by themselves or along with other body builders/modifiers. Majority of the softeners are cationic. Cationic reactive softeners based on amino silicones play very important role to provide the lubricity to facilitate better sewability and also permanency to the finish.
The fabric substrate pH, the stability of the bath pH, the ionic character of the residual chemicals that may be left behind from the previous treatment, incomplete or variation in drying, yellowness, high TDS/ hardness can all influence different finishes differently.