The environment issues associated with textile processing are not new. A large number of chemical of diverse nature involved in process may be present as such or converted in to gone other chemical in processing and this effluent pure definite environment treat. Enzymes assisted textile processes are envisaged as environmentally benign alternatives.
What are Enzymes?
Enzymes are present in living organism and are themselves not living organism. Structurally they resemble protein of varying complexity based on chain of amino acid linked by peptide linkage. Each enzymes is different from other enzyme and the dept is due to-
- Particular amino acid present
- The order in which amino acid are linked
- The presence of absence of metal ion
- The conformation of structure as a whole.
Enzymes for textiles use can be classified as follows-
It convert amylose or amylopectin polymeric commonly referred to as starch into water soluble shorter chain sugars. It is isolated from bacteria, fungi, pancreases and malt.
Cotton waxes consists of various hydrocarbons, fatty alcohol and acids, and their respective esters. These fats and waxes are the major reason for the hydrophobic nature of unscoured cotton fiber. Lipases hydrolyses fat and oils into alcohol & organic acid.
Pectinic compound as found in raw cotton mainly consist of neutral and acidic heteropolysaccharides with different molecular weight and degrees of esterification. Pectinases capable of hydrolyzing pectinic substances are generally enzyme complexes containing esterases and depolymerases with random or terminal activities.
Cellulases enhance the effect of pectinase to a certain extent and add softness to the cotton fabric .They often accompany pectinases in small amount. If used for scouring, cellulases hydrolyze cotton cellulose, lifting off non cellulosic impurities in the course of reaction.