The word is out in the market 'go green to save the world'. Efforts are being made to counter environmental problems like waste-management, global warming, green house effect in the last few decades and there are several 'green' products available in the shops now. Textile sector has also been a witness to several changes in the demands of consumers concerning green products. In order to make the product design optimum, to improve product manufacturability, to resolve the problems occurring in product's remanufacturing, the concept of green production evaluation system is necessary.
The aim of evaluation system is to ensure that the textile and clothing production saves energy, reduces emission and consumption to achieve efficient usage of resources. Green production evaluation plays a contributory role to realise synchronised growth between textile and clothing industry and the ecosystem. The first step is to analyse the production links and after this the evaluation index system is put up. The index system looks thoroughly into six level of textile manufacturing that are use of water and energy, followed by how the waste water, gas and materials are treated, then comes controlling the unsafe or harmful materials to human health, the type of technology being used i.e. how advanced it is, product and design idea, package consumption and working environment of workshops.
The first step in evaluation is consumption of water and energy. The textile sector uses a lot of water, as technical processes including bleaching, boiling, dyeing, printing, finishing, washing of wool, reeling of cocoon, etc. consume gallons of water. In addition to this, textile plant conditioners and the staff working in the plant also require usage of water in large quantities. Water consumption can be calculated by ton per ten thousand.
The chemical fibre, cotton textile and printing and dyeing plants are also major energy consumption industries. In some developing countries like India, per unit energy consumption is 40 percent higher than that of international advanced level. It is to be noted that a major improvement in textile plant management can result in reduction of waste of resources, avoid serious environment pollution and cut high cost. A proper assessment of water and energy consumption can actually lower production cost, save resource and reduce environment press.
The next step is evaluation of the waste water, gas and materials. The waste water coming from textile is full of natural impurities, organic matter of fat and amylum. It has been established that the printing and dyeing waste water contains organic matter of dyes, detergent, amylum, cellulose, ligin and inorganic matter of alkali, sulfide and various salts. The waste gas includes sulfur dioxide, fumes and dust. This is generated after burning of coal and poses serious threat to the environment. The material wastage involves offal short fibre from chemical and mechanical action, wasted yarn and waste materials during spinning and weaving production, loss of fabric during cutting process. These waste materials are treated by burning or burying which pollute environment seriously. Some textile mills utilise waste pieces of fabric by producing a new fabric from the pieces.