By: Shivendra Parmar and Tanveer Malik
Lecturers in the Department of Textile Technology
Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science
Baroli (Indore-Sanwer Road), Distt: Indore (M.P) Pin-453331
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
The urban life has become very congested and the only place of rest is home which is normally indicated by the flats and hence importance of the interior of our homes increases � geometrically.
"Interior Environment" can be defined as the total of interior spaces and their furnishings. More important than the function or comfort of furnishings, or their maintenance is their effect on our psyche: are we comfortable in a space, with a sense of well being? The real question is: are these furnished spaces conducive to work and play?
As furniture will be mass-produced with a modular simplicity and conformity, it won�t be the prime contributor in differentiating spaces. It will be the fabrics, all of them, the wall and floor coverings as well as window and furniture fabrics.
Fabric controls mood, sets style, indicates taste; it is what is seen and is the most manoeuvrable of props, the most easily changed, replaced, or added. Fabric affords sun and light control. It protects interior colour from fading, and furnishings from deterioration through sunlight. Fabrics can increase liveability or workability of a small space, reduce noise, and make music and even speech richer and more resonant.
Most importantly, furnishings must make neutral, impersonal spaces particular and personal. The fabrics being the prime contributors must provide the texture, colour, character and scale, and anything that is missing in the architecture.
Fabric is the interior designer's pharmacy, rich with cures for every complaint. So what is the role of the textile technologist in this? The answer is to provide the interior designers a sky in which they can fly their imagination to the maximum. Give the consumer the choice to be the King by providing the options that he rightly deserves; to live in harmony with his personal space according to his psyche for not just living but living in tranquillity!!!!!
ROLE OF FABRICS IN INTERIOR FURNISHING
A fabric plays an important role for home textiles like:
� Fabric protects interior colour from fading and furnishing from deterioration from sunlight.
� It protects from sun glare and it lends protection from night blackness at evening and from too early sun in the morning.
� Fabrics lends privacy to any degree that is needed
� It shields people from draughts or heat and reduces heat loss in winter.
� It can make summer room cooler and reduce an air conditioning load in the summer.
� Fabric increases liveability and work ability of a small place, reduce noise, make music and even speech richer and more resonant of all acoustic materials, and sound engineers find no material that is equal.
About the author:
I am Shivendra Parmar completed my M.Tech in Textile Technology at Textile institute of technology and Science,Bhiwani CDLU University during 2002 .I did my B.E in Textile Technology at Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science, Indore and passed out in First Class during the year 2002.So far published 4 articles in National and International Journals and presented one paper in national conference. Currently working as lecturer & placement coordinator in the department of Textile Technology, Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science, Indore. Also contribute in TEXTILE ASSOCIATION OF INDIA,M.P UNIT as a Jt. Secertary. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
I am Tanveer Malik completed my M.Tech in Textile Manufacturing at Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), Mumbai University during dec 2001 .I did my B.E in Textile Technology at Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science, Indore and passed out in First Class during the year 2000.So far published 3 articles in National and International Journals. Currently working as lecturer in the department of Textile Technology, Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science, Indore. Email: email@example.com
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Fabrics used for home textiles must have properties such as,
� Good light fastness.
� Good resistance to seam slippage.
� Good resistance to pilling.
� Good resistance to snagging
� Stain repellency.
� Good fastness to sponging.
� Flame retardency.
� Appearance retention.
DIFFERENT FIBERS USED FOR HOME TEXTILES
Apart from the natural fibers, which are being used very much in the home textiles like cotton, silk, wool, linen, etc. and some more of the man made fibers are also being very much used now a day, that includes polyester, rayon, nylon, polypropylene, Teflon, recron, acrylic, etc. Recently some modern fibers are introduced in the market are being used for the home textiles now a days such as.
Sendura :- Sendura is a polyester filament specialty yarn for drapery fabrics. Its striking fabric surface and dull, silky luster is enhanced by the harmony of colours and attractive printed designs, mostly in floral motifs. The handle of sendura fabric resembles that of washable silk and the drape, depending on the fabric construction, is light to compact, but still supple-like heavy high-grade silk.
Varie :- The Varie yarn family comes in counts of between 150 and 405 dtex. Heavier types of drapery fabrics are made from Varie 405 dtex, while 240 dtex is used is used in lighter drapery fabrics, including transparent styles, in weight classes around 110 g/m2.
Lintex :- The yarns of the Lintex family have a natural character with a pronounced linen and a fine texture. Fabrics made of or with Lintex have a fine, rustic, somewhat straw-like texture with a grainy and dry handle. Owing to its structure, Lintex is ideally suited to bringing vitality to the background of printed drapery fabrics.
Crinkle :- A combination of texture and luster in curtain nets and drapery can be obtained with Diolen crinkle, its special yarn structure creating a lively fabrics surface. Crinkle is still mainly used for raschal curtain nets as patterning thread in fall-plate curtains. Against a dull, textured background, the crinkles produce a finely dispersed, structuring luster.
AREAS OF APPICATION
Home textiles includes following applications such as.
� Textiles for seating.
� Window textiles.
� Bed textiles.
� Textiles for wall coverings.
� Bathroom textiles.
� Table textiles.
TEXTILE FOR SEATING
Upholstery fabrics for domestic applications there is a recognized division of specification between fixed upholstery and loose covers
FIXED UPHOLSTERY: - This term refer to any upholstery fabric that is stapled, tacked, glued or other frame and covers a reliant or hard substrate. Abrasion resistance is 25,000 rubs, acrylic fiber velvets are used because of excellent brightness and appearance. An important fashion trend in fixed domestic upholstery fabrics during period under review has been that of heavily textured fabrics. Texture is usually achieved by the use of fancy of boucle type, which is used as weft across non-textured warp. Initially boucle is of rayon and nylon recently pp is popular.
Sun filters - It is a woven voiles made up for polyester fiber flax, it consists of curtains, nets and Plemet made up from Rhone- Poulene fiber adv .Of material is that ease of washing, simple system, absence of seams in the sidepieces.
The following types of sheers curtains become popular.
� Woven nets - air textured continuous filament PET.
� Warp knitted nets
� Burn out and broches - It is developed with core spun PET fibre cotton yarn.
� Raschel Nets.
� Monarch Safety net - made up from terylene yarns.
Semi sheers - Use of coarser yarn, often textures or fancy yarns, woven construction, combination of leno and plain weave with weft wise or warp bands of solid areas or checked of feet.
Reflective textiles - To reduce solar gain. Prevent sun glare, maintaining lower temperature in summer and higher ones in winter e.g. versol with PET fiber fabric, with an aluminum film on one side.
Curtain fabrics and drapes - This is probably of the wide area of fabric development in home textiles. It includes
� Solid colour plain weave materials in cotton, flax, wool, silk, acrylic, viscose, PET, etc.
� Textured synthetics yarn.
� Jacquard and dobby weaves including damask style.
� Checks styles and bordered styles.
� Pile, woven and knitted fabrics.
� For flame retardant curtain use of modacrylic fiber, viscose, PVC fabric self-lining curtains made from crushed acrylic foam coating.
Blinds - A type of window textiles which is opaque. There are two types of blinds
1. One which allows transmission of some light
2. Other is made usually cotton fabric known as black out material which gives 100% opacity.
Various styles available are
� Roller blind
A Roller blind made up from glass fiber fabric. Vertical blind act as a efficient light filter. The factors, which are considered for blinds by British standards are,
� Colour fastness.
� Relaxed length.
� Finishing performance.
� Thermal resistance.
� Draping quality.
� Dimensional property.
Sheets and pillow cases - This is a major �soft goods� category. Sheet print designs have seen much variation, including small & large floral patterns coordinating themes connecting sheet, pillow case, duvet cover, and curtains: bordered designs, patch work inspired points, strong diagonals, geometrics, and candy stripes. A special design for children�s sheets has been one of the modern easy care sheets e.g. �peanuts �, Disney cartoon sets.
Comparative performance sheets with a whole number assessment ranging from five to one.
The bed sheets are given resist bacteria and fungus growth finishes involving the use of an active baceteriostat and fungistatic agents.
Quilted textiles - PET fiber is mainly used, several alternative filling became available for this product. Quilts and comforters have been traditionally most popular in USA. Where they constitute an important sector of bed textiles.
Blankets - Talking about bed textiles, blankets are one of the important accessories used having matching with bed sheets. Today�s blanket evolutions are:
� Solid colour, raised wool , acrylic fiber, and acrylic polyester fiber blends.
� Cotton terry blankets.
� Thermal blankets made from wool, acrylic, polyester and polyester acrylic blends.
� Point designs using large scale single motif with borders.
� Blankets are constructed by stitch bonding technique
Bed Spreads - Today bedspread is one of the most important item of interior furnishings in both and domestic and contract applications. It includes following styles.
� Plain styles including wool, cotton, acrylic, viscose and blends.
� Embroidered styles.
� Lace styles.
� Velour Printed and Jacquard.
� Chenille types.
� Terry wear types.
� Jacquard and Dobby wears.
Mattress covers - The traditional Jacquard patters with continuous filament viscose warp and spun weft of viscose or cotton are used. One of the most significant developments was the introduction of colorful, stylish and modern broad stripes.
TEXTILE FOR WALL COVERING
From practical as well as aesthetic point of view, wall fabrics are fast taking over from paints. Also wall paper plays an important role. Wall fabrics are available in various convenient widths to be used from room height to avoid seams. Jute was the original material choice for wall fabrics and although its use has declined in favor of various other materials especially flax, which from contact point of view is more stable. Non-woven warp systems in a great variety of fiber and texture are also used. Full yarns system is becoming more popular. This fiber can be easily removed for cleaning and replacement (Velcro type Band with self adhesive backing). It becomes appreciated that wall fabric suspended system absorb sound, Absorption is the property of absorbing sound waves with in a material, and this is the best achieved by materials those are fibrous nature. Such as mineral and glass wools.
Tapestries - It involves formation of repp weave where warp is completely hidden by the weft, which is firmly beaten by a Heavy comb. Cotton is used as a warp and worsted yarn is used as a weft.
Method of dyeing - Hank dyeing
Dye used - metal complex dye
Mothproofed yarns are used.
A wall decoration throw or throw rug can give your living area a great new look without any hassle. The color combinations and the patterns used in wall decoration throws almost fit any decoration, any style. You can use wall decoration throws or throw rugs to decorate your living room, your porch or your entrance all very easy with our cheap prices.
Wool, cotton, polyester and chenille are the primary material used to make our wall decoration throws and throw rugs. The popularity of wool wall decoration throws is due to its inherent qualities. There are certain breeds of sheep, like the merino, whose fleece is especially sought-after for its special luster and length of fiber, commonly used in some of our wall decoration throws.
Wall Hangings � Embroidery - Embroidery is sometimes used to mark the borders between the patterned areas of the ground clothe and most varied types of stitches are used to obtain decorative effect with the aid of the carded, dyed, non-spun woven fibers, the artist, creates a tapestry or wall hanging by super imposing a web on a backing material.
Wall Hanging � Hand tufted - It includes both Hand operated tufting needle and mechanical tufting gun, In wall hanging it involves several other interior textiles such as
� Wall Hangings � Batik
� Wall hanging � Woven and knotted
Shower Curtains � shower curtains need to be water proof materials, plastic coated textiles (woven and non woven fabrics) became firmly established in this area. At the cheaper and plastics membranes have been used, but their propensity to splitting and tearing are the disadvantages. Printed shower curtains were occasionally designed to co-ordinate with bathroom vinyl wall coverings and occasionally with towel designs, as well as tufted bathroom textiles.
Terry Toweling - Terry fabrics became an important sector of household textiles. The terry towel has become available in a wide variety of designs piece dyed fabrics, jacquard floral designs as well as prints and is sculpted as well as velvet or �shorn� versions.
Table Cloth - It is of several types-
� Colour woven printed types of linen cotton material
� Jacquard type which include damask
� Embroidered types
� Non-woven types, which include spun bonded Nylon and spun laced polyester fibre.
Table Mats - Colour woven printed and Jacquard types and embroidered styles.
India is one of those countries where people customarily sit on the floor. Carpets are an economically important but miniscule part of the floor covering popularly used in India.
The Indian carpet weaver ties his knots with great dexterity, on upright wooden looms of traditional design. Vertical looms are used in sizes varying from five to sixty feet, with three to five weavers, working on each.
The fitness of a carpet is judged by the number of knots per unit area in combination of the design, colors and quality of yarn. The firmness, thickness and appearance of the back of the carpet, are important considerations.
The carpets of mountain areas are made in pure wool and have motifs of the dragon, snow lion, stylized chrysanthemum and lotus.
Many varieties of fine prayer carpets are made in India. The asana, a square of pile carpet, drugget or durries material, is in a plain single color or austere design. It is traditionally used, while performing rituals during worship
RUGS AND MATS
In India, the floor coverings have evolved with a great deal of imagination and aesthetic sense Mats are also made of wheat or rice straw, weeds and fine sliced bamboo. The mats have a fine upper layer and a coarse bottom one, and are stitched at the edges. Mats in India are even made of wheat or rice straw, weeds and fine sliced bamboo. Skillfully stitched rugs serve as floor coverings, wall decorations and mattresses. They are used as horse and camel saddles and wall hangings besides traditional floor coverings.
These are used in decorating the tables. These are normally run over the table to add to the look. In India table covers are more predominant then table runners. Table covers are mostly used to protect the furnisher from strain and for the attractive look of the dinning table.
Covering an occasional or side table can give it a new lease of life by changing its appearance dramatically. A single cover can be made, but by adding a second layer in a contrasting fabric, the shape of the table will be enhanced.
A second layer can also be added in the same fabric, but by adding fringing in a contrasting colour the shape will be accentuated.
KITCHEN WEARS APRONS
Kitchen wear aprons are mostly flame retardants. These kitchen wear aprons are used while cooking to protect from strain occurring in our dress coat and from flame.
The kitchen wear aprons perfectly covers and protects the front back and the sides of the body and ensures perfect safety.
DuPont Textiles and interiors (DTI) introduced a new Teflon fabric protector with dust mite control for use in bedding and upholstery. With Ciba specialty chemicals DTI is elevated ease care benefit of Teflon. With this new treatment, the stain repellency provides investor barriers, causing liquids to bead up and rolls off the fabric while release technology prevents the fiber from holding stains and soils so they can be easily washed off. This treatment has no impact on touch, handle and breathablility. And more important it is eco-friendly.
�TEXTILE COS HAVE BIG PLANS TO DRESS UP INDIAN HOMES.� This statement was in Economic Times states that big companies are launching or have already started to make fabrics to dress up Indian homes. Big players like Bombay Dyeing is forgotten and new players like Welspun (Spaces); Creative garments with joint venture Portico New York, Yamini and Grapewine have successfully launched fabrics for interior. Home textile in India has market worth 1,000 rupees. Organize players, constitute only 10% of domestic home textile market, as tough competition from unorganized players.
Having seen extensively about the use of home textiles, and the glamour they add to our living environment, the production of various patterns using different colors and creative ideas should cause through in this field.
There is rapid improvement in the west, in the field of interior decoration and home textiles. Thus, the innovative ideas and quality finishing would help us realize our dream, which is the growth of home textiles. Apart from wide use of textiles for clothing, home textiles are rapidly capturing the market. Indian home textiles find a rating amongst the top 5 in world according to a study conducted by the US department of commerce.
The studied data reveals that Indian home textiles 2nd china in certain categories which includes bags, table linens, napkins curtains & rank 3rd in products like cotton bed sheets, quilts. India has also made an impact in the cotton sheets, and terry towels category. The day is not far away when Indian home textiles will reach the zenith.
First of all we would like to express profound gratitude to the management of the institute, Administrative officer Shri. R.C.Parmar, Principal Dr.Ing.V.P.Singh, Advisor Prof. Dr. H.V.S.Murthy and Head of the department Prof. Dr.Prabhakar Bhat for giving encouragement and guidance to work on HOME TEXTILES � A Review
6. COLOURAGE (august 2005)