By: Histclo.com

We are preparing a series of pages on national clothing styles. We now have over 60 countries listed in our country section. Most have a linked page with at least some basic information on clothing in that country. We have developed detailed information for several mostly European counties and the United States. Many of the country pages, however, are just being sketched out at this time. So don't expect too much yet. We have a lot of other pages to do, so it will be a while before we can focus on all the countries on our list. Of course here we need your assistance. HBC does not have the capability to visit or even research all of these countries. Do let us know if you have any text or images to contribute about your country. The current Euro-centric focus of HBC is because European readers have been the most willing to contribute information. We have tried to create a page for each country, even if only limited information is available. This provides a location for collecting information. We hope that our readers will contribute insights into fashion trends in their own countries. HBC has collected information on more than individual countries. The information on most of these countries still sketchy. We have, however, succeeded in collecting quite detailed information on America and several European countries.

Afghanistan

HBC at this time has very little information on Afghani boys' wear. Clothing styles have been strongly affected by social trends and rule by a communist government and now rigid Taliban theocracy. We have little information on clothing during the communist era, but the Taliban is promoting long closed shirts and baggy trousers.

Chronology
The wrenching political changes in Afghanistan affected clothing.

Communist era (the 1980s)
The communist government that ruled in Kabul adopted western dress for both children and adults, although in rural villages traditional clothing was still common.

Traditional clothes (the 1990s)
After the Soviet departure in 1989, traditional dress has returned. The rise of the Taliban, especially after 1996, accelerated this trend, including the most extreme forms of Islamic dress for girls and women. Men had to wear beards and baggy pants. Except for little girls, women had to wear the all covering burka.

Liberation (the 2000s)
The liberation of Afghanistan by the Northern Alliance and the United states in the aftermath of the 911 terror attack on the United States has had a major impact on women's clothes. Traditional clothing is still common, but now not all women have to wear the burka. We know of no major change in men and boy' clothing.

Garments Shirts
The closed front shirt apparently originated in the Islamic world. A HBC reader reports that the "long shirt" is now widely worn in Afghanistan. These garments have a very old history--probably over 1,000 years. They are the original garments worn in Islamic countries and are referred to in the Koran. As a pure form of Islamic dress code, the wearing of these is encouraged in Islamic countries. It is obviously a clue as to how the closed front shirts were originally made. When the cotton industry was established in British India (then including Pakistan) the Indians produced these shirts for Europeans in a shorter form. In fact, the British Army was probably the first organization to wear them.

Shalwar kamiz
In Afghanistan, the Taliban are trying to make the wearing of the "Shalwar Kadiz" compulsory for all males. This is actually the combination of Long Shirt over baggy Pantaloons.

Chronology
We have very little information on Lebanese schools at this time. Most of our information comes from the French colonial era and post World War II period. France played an important role in Lebanon. Lebanon had been a part of the Ottomon Empire until the British and the Arabs drove them out at the end of World War I. The Arabs hoped to create an Arab nation, but instead the British and French set up protectorates under League of Nation trusteeships. France created a protectorate for Lebanon and Syria and founded the modern school system in both countries.

Garments
While we have little information on Lebanese schools at this time, we do have some information on the French schools in Lebanon. French schools in Lebanon appear to have been very insistent that boys and girls wear school smocks. Smocks also appear to have been commonly worn in the state schools. This appears to have been a common pattern in many Arab countries.

Malaysia

Boys' Clothes
Malaysia is a diverse country consisting of Malays, Chinese, and Indians. Boys clothing styles differ based on their ethnic background. The Malay community wear what they consider to be modest dress.

Background
Malaysia is a former British colony. The colonial arrangements were somewhat complicated. There was not one centrally organized colony

Ethnicity
Malaysia's population is about 50 percent ethnic Malay, all Muslim. The rest are ethnic Chinese (mostly Christian or Taoist) and ethnic Tamil (mostly Hindu).

Ethnic Diversity

Malay boys
In both Singapore and Malaysia, Islam regards it as immodest for people above puberty to show their thighs. Malay boys at secondary schools never wear short pants. However, some young urban trendy Malay teens in Kuala Lampur are now occasionally seen wearing shorts as a fashion item, but since the current fashion has them coming down to their knees anyway, they are not really transgressing Islamic rules. The long trousers or jeans they do wear are extremely lightweight, for comfort in the tropical heat. Ordinary western jeans are completely intolerable after about 3 minutes. Longs also have the advantage of protecting legs from mosquitoes.
Chinese and Indian boys

Many Chinese boys wear short pants for casual, though never for formal, wear. Likewise for school uniforms, a few Chinese Malaysian secondary boys wear uniform shorts.

Garments
We have very little information about Malaysian boys clothing at this time. Until after World War II, traditional garments were very commonly worn. Hopefully a Malaysian reader will provide some basic information. We do have a page on tights.

Pakistan

Boys' Clothes
We have few details about Pakistani boys' clothing at this time. We do note boys in the rural areas, especially in the tribal areas along the Afghan border wearing caps like those worn in Afghanistan. I'm not sure what these caps are called. British fashion have been influential in Pakistan, especially among the more affluent and in the larger cities. American fashion also has had an impact, especially jeans. The resurgence of fundamentalism has had some impact on fashion. Even in remote areas, however, we often note a mixture of traditional and western styles. One tradition garment is the three piece salwar kameez. The kameez and vest are often beautifully embroidered. They are commonly made in various colors, including pale blue, khaki, chocolate and grey. Styles vary especially the length of the vest. Hopefully our Pakistani readers will provide us more detailed information on boys' wear in their country.


Traditional Garments
Korean children mostly wore traditional clothing in the first half of the 20th century. Some boys wore Western garments in the cities, but traditional clothing was more common. We do not yet have detailed information on the various traditional garments involved. This did not begin to change until after World War II and the Korean War. The change may have occurred faster in the North as it was more industrialized with a larger urban population. Substantial change took place in the South during the 1960s.

Western Clothes
Koreans boys by the 1970s, were mostly wearing Western clothes. The garments we have noted were essentially the same as worn in Japan. We see country children by the 1970s wearing the same Western clothing styles as worn in the cities. Girls wore both pants and dresses. Boys wore T-shirts and shorts in the summer. Track suits seem popular in colder weather. Younger children commonly wore colorful tights. Tights replaced long stockings, we believe in the 1960s. We note that Korean catalogs still offer tights for younger children, both boys and girls. Sneakers were very popular and continue to be so. Many Korean children wore school uniforms. We note that at some schools with uniforms, the schools did not always insist on uniform hosiery. A reader writes, �I noted the hosiery the children are wearing at a Korean school. One of the girls is wearing striped knee socks, which I don't think we have seen before as part of a school uniform. The boys seem to be wearing white tights with shorts, but notice that, in at least one case, the white tights are patterned. I don't believe we have seen patterned tights in Korea or Japan before. Is this an innovation?" We have noted in both Korea and Japan that younger children wore a variety of tights and socks done in both stripes as well as with designs, often cartoon characters on them.

School Uniforms
We have very limited information on Korean schools at this time. Hopefully our Korean readers will provide us more information. School uniforms seem strongly influenced by Japanese styles in the South and Chinese styles in the North. We have begun to collect some information on South Korean schools. Short cut short pants were not as commonly worn by Korean school boys as was the case in Japan. Secondary school uniforms, however, are similar to Japanese styles. Unlike Japan, there are no private schools in Korean and even private tutoring until recently has been illegal. We also have some limited information on North Korean schools.

Kurdistan

Boys' Clothes
HBC at this time has very little information on Kurdish boys' wear. The Kurds are most noted for the long baggy pants that men wear. Hopefully Kurdish readers will provide us more details about Kurdish clothing. The Kurds are a people without a country. Her we have created a page on Kurdistan, even though we have little information on Kurdish clothing. A basic knowledge of the Kurds and their lack of a country is important in understanding both Iraq and the Middle East in general.

Kurdish Clothing
Kurdish men like many in the Levant often wear a long gown. While this is not distinctly Kurdish, the long baggy pants which they commonly war is Kurdish. I'm not sure what the common term is for these garments. There does not appear to be any distinct styles for Kurdish boys to identify them as children. Western dress is common in Kurdistan, but boys are more likely to wear Western dress. I am not sure why this is.

Lebanon

School Clothing
We have very little information on Lebanese schools at this time. Most of our information comes from the French colonial era and post World War II period. France played an important role in Lebanon. Lebanon had been a part of the Ottomon Empire until the British drove them out at the end of World War I. France created a protectorate for Lebanon and thus help found the modern school system. While we have little information on Lebanese schools at this time, we do have some information on the French schools in Lebanon. French schools in Lebanon appear to have been very insistent that boys and girls wear school smocks. Smocks also appear to have been commonly worn in the state schools. This appears to have been a common pattern in many Arab countries. We have begun to collect some information on individual schools. We have no information about modern Lebanese schools.


Textile Industry
Pakistan has an important textile and clothing industry. It is one of the largest employers in the country and a major export industry. Pakistani companies are aggressive exporters and have contacted HBC concerning many of the clothing items we discuss on our website. Concerns have been expressed with the industry for both the use of child labor as well as various environmental issues. Some industry representatives are concerned about the industry's future. The industry has failed to address Western concerns over child labor and environmental problems. The industry has also been slow to upgrade technology. Some individuals are also concerned about the World Trade Organization (WTO). The Scientists' Club organized a seminar (June 2004) during which Dr. Abdul Hayee Qureshi, a scientist at the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council told participants that the expectations with which developing countries like Pakistan held for the WFO may be achieved after the final termination in 2005 of Multifibre Agreement (MFA).

The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) was scheduled to replace the MFA in four stages over a 10-year period. Dr Qureshi charges that the categories of items whose exports might have benefited the developing countries were left out almost completely. Qureshi is concerned that after MFA expires that developed countries might try to impose a myriad restrictions in the name of environment, labor standards, child labor, human rights, eco-labeling etc. He noted that Pakistan still lacked accreditation laboratories in this regard. Dr Qureshi expressed concern over the havoc played by indiscriminate application of pesticides, especially in cotton farming, which have already poisoned our environment to the point where many species of beneficial organisms and birds had been wiped out almost completely. [Iqbal] Industry sources object to pressure from developed countries to address such environmental issues and child labor, there appears to be little domestic commitment to addressing them.

Singapore

School Uniform
Almost all Singapore school children wear school uniforms. They are required by the Government at state schools, although the Government does not mandate the style ad color. Singapore was a former British colony and school uniforms were well established in the colonial era. Uniforms were furing the colonial period the traditional British school boy uniforms. Modern Singapore uniforms are more casual than the traditional English styles. Given the warm climate, boys wear short pants and open-necked shirts.

Uniforms Required
Uniform is compulsory at all Singapore schools. While the Government requires a uniform, it does not mandate the precise nature of the uniform. All state schools in Singapore (that is, local primary and secondary schools and not universities) have their own unique uniforms. I am not sure if there are government regulations mandating uniforms, but all state schools have them."

Styles
Singapore schools have a variety of uniforms. The modern uniforms are casually styled. The uniform is usually shorts and collared short-sleeved button shirts for boys (made of nylon or polythene) and a blouse and skirt for girls. A Singapore reader tells us, "Most schools change the boys uniform to long pants for older boys, usually at age 15. The older boys uniform is usually long pants as leg hair with the onset of puberty is considered unsightly." One popular style used at many schools is white open-neck shirt with short sleeves, beige short trousers and with white ankle socks. This is very typical of Singapore day-to-day school uniforms, especially for the Chinese schools. Only the most senior boys would be likely to wear long trousers except on formal occasions. There are a number of international schools in Singapore, many of which also have uniforms. These uniforms, sucaveraging h as at the Australian School, can be distinctive. Due to the climate of Singapore (30�C sunny all year round) there are no seasonal uniforms.


Garments
HBC has very limited information about Singapore schools. We are not yet sure what is worn in primary schools. The school garments we have noted in recent years at secondary schools have been very casual uniforms consisting of casual open necked white shirts, brown or blue shorts, white ankle socks, and plain white tennis shoes. We have not noted caps, blazers, or ties. We have no information at this time about uniforms previously worn in Singapore schools. We suspect they may have been more formal British styles.

Caps
We have not noted caps being worn in secondary schools. We do not yet know about primary schools.

Ties
We have not noted Singapore boys wearing ties to school.

Blazer
We have also not noted blazers, although we suspect they were worn when Singapore was still part of the British Empire.

Shirts
The boys wear light-weight white or pale tan short-sleeved shorts. They are worn open collared.

Pants
The younger secondary school boys wear short pants. There are both blue and various shades of brown shorts. There may be other colors, but brown and blue are the only colors that we have noted. The shorts are trim fitting and not the long baggy style now popular in America and Europe. Some older boys appear to wear shorts also although at some schools the older boys wear long trousers.

Socks
Boys wear white ankle socks. We have not noted knee socks/

Shoes
Boys wear plain white tennis shoes. We have not noted styling sneakers or leather shoes or sandals.

Tajikistan

Boys' Clothes
Tajikistan is one of the new independent countries that emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1992. We have little information about Tajikistan, but we have some information on traditional Tajik clothing. The Tajik boy here wears a long coat-like garment, but I am not sire what it is called. Tajik clothing looks to be heavily embroidered. The Tajik spring celebration is called Navrus today. People often wear traditional costumes as seen here. It is a velvet outfit worn by boys and men. Mother makes it at home. So the designs vary widely and come in different sizes. This student also wears matching trousers and white velvet shirt. There is also ornate head wear.

Traditional Clothes
We have some information on traditional Tajik clothing. We note Tajik boys for ceremonial occasions wearing long coat-like garment, but I am not sure what it is called. Tajik traditional clothing looks to be heavily embroidered. The Tajik spring celebration is called Navrus today. People often wear traditional costumes for this and other special occasions. It is a velvet outfit worn by boys and men. Mother makes it at home. So the designs vary widely and come in different sizes. Student who normally wears Western clothing, often uniforms to school, sometimes come to school in traditional clothing for special occasions. Boys might wear long embroidered robes with matching trousers and white velvet shirt. There is also ornate head wear. We noted that in Dunshanbe and other cities that children wear mostly Western clothes for day to day wear. We thought that traditional clothing might be more common in rural areas, but even in rural areas, Western clothing is very common, although not as trendy as in the city (figure 1). Even in rural areas, traditional clothing is mostly worn on ceremonial occasions. The girls and women seem to wear traditional costume more commonly than boys and men. This gender difference is especially pronounced in rural areas.


Garments
We note Tajik boys for ceremonial occasions wearing long coat-like garment, but I am not sure what it is called. Tajik traditional clothing is often heavily embroidered. It is a velvet outfit worn by boys and men. Mother makes it at home. So the designs vary widely and come in different sizes. Student who normally wears Western clothing, often uniforms to school, sometimes come to school in traditional clothing for special occasions. Boys might wear long embroidered robes with matching trousers and white velvet shirt. There is also ornate head wear.

Headwear
We have noted ornate head wear. We have noticed skull caps and turbans. Now at what age a boy would wear a turban I do not know but in the novel Kim the boy was wearing a turban when he was 13.

Shirts
We note boys wearing white velvet shirts.

Trousers
Boys might wear long embroidered robes with matching trousers.

Coat-like Garment
We note Tajik boys for ceremonial occasions wearing long coat-like garment. The Tajik word for the traditional long coat worn by men and boys is 'chapan.' It is made out of velvet. It is very heavy. It is often green in color. It is very long and reaches down to your ankles. There are no buttons to keep it fastened. Instead a sash is rapped around the waist and tied into a bow. Tajik traditional clothing is often heavily embroidered. It is a velvet outfit worn by boys and men. Mother makes it at home. So the designs vary widely and come in different sizes. Student who normally wears Western clothing, often uniforms to school, sometimes come to school in traditional clothing for special occasions.

Thailand

One Thai reader reports that girls like to wear all colors, accept their school uniform color. They like to wear shorts, T-shirts and some wear hats. Boys like to wear jeans, pants, T-shirts and hats. All Thai schools require uniforms.

Turkey

Boys Clothes
HBC has not yet been able to collect much information on the clothing worn by Turkish boys. We have little historic information on Turkey. We do note that the warm Mediterranean climate of Turkey is an important factor as was centuries of rule by the Ottoman Turks. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the rise of the modern secular state after World War I, European fashions began to have greater influence. The Turks do have very distinctive kilt folk costumes. HBC has been unable to find much information on Turkish boy�s clothes and would barely interest in any information that Turkish visitors to our site may be able to offer.

Folk Costumes
The Turks have very distinctive folk costumes. Each region in Turkey has its own culture with different dress traditions. We see a variety of garments. In many cases folk attire from different regions used the same or similar garments, but with different styles and details. We do not yet have any detailed information on these costumes. Hopefully a Turkish reader will provide us some information. We do note Turkish Costume Dolls, a company producing dolls in traditional Ottoman dress. The company specializes in dolls wearing traditional Turkish costumes. You may see different examples of female and male Turkish clothing in their dolls from bridal dresses to Sufi darwish clothes.

Ankara Area
Here we see the traditional dress of men/boys around Ankara. The photograph is labeled K���k Efeler. This is the traditional clothing of Ankara region, the capital of Turkey. The pants are called zivga, the shirt is called Osmaniye ishlik. The jacket, cepken, is short as they are protecting their back with a girdle called kushak. They normally carry a gun holder usually with a short and a long knife. They wear wool socks called tiftik chorap and the shoes are called Yemeni


Kaftans
A kaftan or caftan is a long garment, often with long sleeves. Some are made with short sleeves. The kaftan is sometimes worn with a sash. It is a major item of Middle-Eastern clothing. It was a garment worn in both Turkey and Persia. It has evolved into an item of Western clothing, normally a garment worn for lounging, such as beachwear. Here is the "kaftan"s of Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and his sons (shahzades). Kaftan is an outer coat made of different kinds of fabrics. It is a sumptuous garment done in brilliant colors.

Turkistan

Boys' Clothes
Turkmenistan is one of the new central Asian countries created from the Soviet Union. As a Soviet republic, it was often referred to as Turkmen or Turkmenistan. The country borders on the Caspian Sea. Iran, Afghanistan and Russia and Uzbekistan on the north. Most of the country is the Kara Kum Desert. The population is largely composed of Turkmens, a Turkic-speaking Moslerm people. Until the Soviets incorporated the area into the Soviet Union, clothing except for Russian officials was largely traditional.

Clothing
Until the Soviets incorporated the area into the Soviet Union, clothing except for Russian officials was largely traditional. The British Museum has the yunic seen here as part of its collection. The Museum reports, "Young boys wear a tunic or over shirt (kirlik or krte) until they are four or five. It is made of seven pieces from seven tents and sewn by three or four fortunate women. They embroider it with motifs and use colors such as red that symbolize life and fertility. The borders often have hook patterns representing scorpions for protection. The women also attach a whole range of items to the shoulders and back: bells, beads, amulets, coins, feathers, cowrie shells or white buttons, tufts of hair, black-and-white cords, models of sharp tools and weapons, tubes or roundels containing texts or prayers from the Qur'an and snakes modeled in cloth. Caps and bibs use the same elements, which are intended to frighten away evil spirits and either catch the attention of the 'evil eye' or deflect it from causing harm.

Uzbekistan

Boys' Clothes
Uzbekistan is one of the central Asian countries created from the Soviet Union in 1992. It is a very new country with an ancient tradition. Boys have worn traditional clothes, but the Russians who came to Uzbekistan wear modern European-styled clothes. Although Uzbekistan was not independent until 1992, for organizational simplicity we are archiving Czarist and Soviet Uzbek images under Uzbekistan.

Article Source

Historical Boys� Clothing began as a historical fashion site, but gradually expanded their focus. Several articles are added related to historical fashion; their idea was that some historical background was needed to fully understand those fashions. They also began to see the fashion pages as a reflection of changing cultural attitudes. Clothing is in fact cultural artifacts of considerable value in understanding any historical period. The idea is to show how children (mainly boys) participated in and were affected by historical events and what they wore, which also depicts the culture of the era and different countries.

http://histclo.com/country/cou-as.html


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Pants
The Taliban insisted that men wear baggy trousers. Western dress of any sort was founded on. Short pants in particular were offensive to the Taliban as a visiting Pakistani soccer team found. The Taliban allowed soccer on special occasions, but with bizarre restrictions. Players had to wear long-sleeved shirts and long trousers -- preventing the showing of skin, which the Taliban denounced as un-Islamic. A 2000 match in the Taliban's stronghold Kandahar against players from the Pakistani border town Chaman ended in disarray when members of the feared religious police raced on to the pitch to arrest the Pakistani players for wearing short pants. Five of the Pakistani players managed to flee to the safety of their consulate in Kandahar while the rest had their heads shaved before being released. Pakistani diplomats lodged a protest. In liberated Afghanistan, soccer player Ahmed Zaia reports, "Before, the Taliban used to make us play in long garments, and today you see us in short sleeves and shorts. It's wonderful."

Vintage Clothing
At this time we have only one vintage Afghan clothing item. It is a 1960s or 1970s Afghan suede coat for a little person. The coat is fully lined in sheepskin (even in the arms) and the cuffs and opening is trimmed with the softest long sheep or goat hair for decoration. There is embroidery at the sleeves. These coats were built to last! There is a very antique looking clasp to do the coat up. It is fully hand stitched throughout and is also embroidered in purple and yellow silk thread in a psychadelic pattern on the front and the back.

Armenia

Armenia is one of the oldest countries in the world with a recorded history stretching back an estimated 3,500 years.

World War I Clothing Impacts
World War represents a great divide between 19th and 20th Century boys� clothes. The War was arguably the single most important event in the development of modern fashions. Before the War boys still wore dresses and kilts with ringlet curls for little boys. Older boys wore formal clothes like Little Lord Fauntleroy suits worn with keepants. After the war boys wore short pants and knickers with modern looking suits. Clothes became increasingly casual. I am not sure why such a profound change in fashion took place. Certainly the War was devastating. An entire generation of French, British, and Germans were lost. But just why the change in boys' fashions occurred I am not sure. HBC can only offer a theory at this time. Women were mobilized for the work force. Many women who had never left the home before, entered the work force. They simply did not have time to launder and care for the fancy clothes of the Victorian and Edwardian era. But time was not the only factor. As a result of the War, the frivolity of formal fashion seemed much less important than before the War. Men returning from the Western front, experienced a profound change in values. The restructuring of the world economy after World War I needs to be considered.

Uniforms
The Americans adopted an olive drab uniform. Almost an exact replica had been adopted by the American Boy Scout movement. An Australian reader tells us that "Alec Campbell is a good example of the uniforms Australians wore in World War I. Along with our flat top busman's type cap or hat and the now famous green Slouch hat that they wore with distinction�s tad like the American calvary wore on both sides of the Civil War. I have a slouch hat and the busman's type cap as well and I put them in my window on ANZAC day and on November 11 as well and now also on September 11 too." Perhaps the most distinctive and least explicable garment in the War was the German spiked helmet.

Clothing Impacts
World War I is interesting, both in the years leading up to the War and in the aftermath of the War.

Before the War

It is a little known fact that the boys' sailor suit had a role in preparing the ground work for the calamity of World War I. Fashion is generally viewed by HBC as a reflection of larger historical an societal trends. We remained convinced that this is essentially the case. It is interesting however, to reflect on the impact of the boys' sailor suit in the years leaving up to World War I. It certainly reflected the temper of the times, but there is reason to believe that the sailor suit was a factor in leading the great European powers to war.


After the War

World War represents a great divide between 19th and 20th Century boys� clothes. The War was arguably the single most important event in the development of modern fashions. In many ways the Edwardian Era before World War I, has more in common with the 19th century Victorians than the rest of the 20th century.

Fashions
Before the War boys still wore dresses and kilts with ringlet curls for little boys. Older boys wore formal clothes like Little Lord Fauntleroy suits worn with keepants. Sailor suits were enormously popular, in part because the battleship was the most powerful weapon of the day and the way countries exerted their power around the world. After the war boys wore short pants and knickers with modern looking suits. Sailor suits were still worn, but began to decline in popularity. Clothes became increasingly casual. Short pants became popular for boys. The sneaker was another style which became popular.

Catalysts
HBC is not sure why such a profound change in fashion took place. There are several probable factors. But just why the change in boys' fashions occurred I am not sure. HBC can only offer a theory at this time.

Devastation
Certainly the War was devastating. An entire generation of French, British, and Germans were lost. As a result of the War, the frivolity of formal fashion seemed much less important than before the War. Men returning from the Western front, experienced a profound change in values. Men returning from the front had reason to question all the old certainties and values. As a result, outward expressions of the Edwardian era such as fashion were easily discarded.

War fashions
Military uniforms always influence fashion. Uniforms were much more practical garments than the formal clothes that men wore before the War. On the home front governments issued regulations to more efficiently use limited supply of fabric and a shrinking work force. Fancy clothes often required larger quantities of fabric and during he War came to be seen as frivolous.

Mobilization of women
Women were mobilized for the work force. Many women who had never left the home before, entered the work force. They increasingly wanted practical clothes for themselves and their children. It is not widely understood today the labor require to run a home in the early 20th century before the invention of a wide range of labor saving devices. Laundry alone was a huge effort, especially for the formal clothes commonly worn before the War. Women simply did not have time to launder and care for the fancy clothes of the Victorian and Edwardian era.

Life-style changes
Time was not the only factor that acted to promote practical, casual clothes. The War was a factor which accelerated existing trends. One of these was attitudes toward leisure and sport. Many Victorians in the 19th century were suspicious leisure, some considering it even immoral. Only slowly did children�s play in fact become something that parents promoted. After the War leisure became a new passion. Many factors were involved such as rising incomes, but those who survive the War, were determined to enjoy life for the fullest. This new freedom was eagerly taken up by their children.

Economy
The restructuring of the world economy after World War I needs to be considered.

Sailor Suits
It is a little known fact that the boys' sailor suit had a role in preparing the ground work for the calamity of World War I. Fashion is generally viewed by HBC as a reflection of larger historical societal trends. We remained convinced that this is essentially the case. It is interesting however, to reflect on the impact of the boys' sailor suit in the years leading up to World War I. It certainly reflected the temper of the times, but there is reason to believe that the sailor suit was a factor, of course among many others, in leading the great European powers to war.


Bangladesh

HBC still has no boys information on clothing trends in Bangladesh. We suspect that they are similar to India. Bangladesh merchants have inquired about purchasing used American clothing.

Bhutan

Boys' Clothes
Bhutan is one of two small Himalayan kingdoms nestled between Tibet, China, and India and as a result has been influenced over time by those countries. There was also a short period of British influence during the Raj. Bhutan is by China (Tibet) to the north and India to the south and is very close to Bangladesh. The other Himalayan kingdom is located a few miles to the west. The country is ruled by a hereditary monarch. It is a very traditional societies with an economy based on agriculture. Bhutan is a largely Buddhist country with influences from both India and Tibet. The legal system is based on Buddhist law and English common law. The heart if Bhutan is the Kathmandu Valley which had been the enter if the monarchy for 1,500 years.

Few countries have a more majestic setting--surrounded by the towering Himalayas and nine of the planets highest mountain peaks (including Mount Everest and Annapurna I). Nepal began to emerge from its medieval isolation in the 16th century when the House of Gorkha by Dravya Shah (1559). Gorkha monarchs expanded the kingdom into a major state into what is now India (late 18th century). This brought Bhutan into conflict with the British East India Company. The Anglo- Nepalese War (1814-16) was fought in the later stage of the Napoleonic War in Europe. The Treaty of Sagauli ended the War, but left Bhutan with its much reduced modern boundaries. We do not yet have much information about Bhutan clothing. Here we see two modern Bhutan boys, but its a little difficult to make out just what they are wearing (figure 1). A reader writes, "As we can see, the boys here are wearing skirt like kilts. Is that common in Bhutan?" HBC as this time is unsure. We still know very little about Bhutan. Their outfits do not look like kilts to us. Notice that there is no pleating. Rather they seem to be wearing a robe-like jacket, perhaps with short pants.

China

Boys' Clothes
HBC still has virtually no information on Chinese boys' clothing. We would, however, be very interested in any information that Chinese readers can provide us on either tradition or modern clothing in this important country. A Chinese reader is helping us to pull together some basic information.

Overview
A Chinese boy writes us, "HBC, thanks for your hard working! Your site is awful (meaning I think good)! There are so many interesting information. I'm a Chinese boy, I learnt a lot from your site. But I couldn't find any Chinese boys fashion info except one Chinese-French movie. Why not put more stuff about Chinese boys? We wear various clothes. Unlike European boys, we don't wear knee socks or stockings commonly. I've never worn them. Girls, especially young girls wear stockings and tights more than young boys, still not common. Boys only wear football knee socks for sports, no other types. One exception is Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao. For historical reasons, Hong Kong boys' costumes are similar to British boys'. Long shorts became popular among Chinese children just several years ago, not only younger boy as you say, but also old boys wear them. I am one example. Sailor suits are casual. Although everyone likes to see boys in sailor suits, but it's not commonly wear. That's true modern Chinese boys' costumes are like Japanese ones. (Not traditional costumes, both Chinese and Japanese boys don't wear their own traditional clothes)." [Wang Chen]

About the lack of information about Chinese boys' fashions on HBC. You are correct. We have very little. There are two reasons for that: 1) Our site is a contributory site. That means that the primary source of information is material contributed from readers. Thus our readers contribute information on their country and can then surf HBC to learn about other countries. Perhaps because the site is in English, we do not have a large number of Chinese readers. And so far nine of the readers from China have sent information to us. We appreciate your interest in our site and will be glad to use any information you may wish to contribute. 2) We have been unable to find any good English language source of information on Chinese boys' clothing.


Garments
Chinese boys have worn a wide range of garments. We know relatively little about the traditional clothing worn through the 19th and early 20th century and to what extent there were specific garments worn by boys. Western clothing began appearing in China during the 19th century, but was not extensively worn. Western clothing appeared in the major cities during the Republic which was created (1911). Consideration of fashion declined after the Japanese invasion (1937) and subsequent War. When the Chinese Communists emerged victorious in the Civil War (1949), they imposed fashion persprctions and guidelines much like earlier imperial regimes. Only since the 1990s have the Chinese been free to select the kinds of garments they wished to wear on an individual basis. Most young Chinese have chosen Western styled garments. American styles are particularly popular. Thus Chinese children for the first time are wearing garments much like those worn in the West.

Traditional Garments
We know relatively little about the traditional clothing worn through the 19th and early 20th century and to what extent there were specific garments worn by boys. A student in Shanghai has provided us some informational on traditional clothing. Boys commonly wore Changshan (some people think that is same as Qipao, which is wrong), especially before 1911. After the Chinese Communist victory in 1949 these garments were no longer worn. It was like a dress with long sleeves, high collar (also call the mandarin collar), and often a vest on the outside. The buttons for boys are always on the left side, from the neck to left arm (under). For girls the buttons were always on the right side. Adults wore this garment as well.

Sailor Suits
Sailor suits were worn by a small number of middle class boys in Chinese cities during the early 20th century. This ended with the 1937 Japanese invasion and occupation of most of China's larger cities. With the victory of the Communists in 1949 the sailor suit was no longer seen in China as it was not in keeping with the drab, plain outfits that the Government proscribed for children. Neither boys or girls wore sailor suits. Here the fact that the sailor suit was widely worn by Japanese school girls may have descredited the style even more in official minds. Not until the end of the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) did children's fashions begin to become more varied. The firs changes were in clothes for younger children, especially pre-school children. Thus by the later 1980s you begin to see mothers dressing younger boys in sailor suits.

Chinese School Uniform: Chronology
Chinese history dates back over 5,000 years and from the earliest times education was a concern of Chinese leaders. Over time scholars acquired great status in China, although they have at times been perceuted by various emperors and most recently by Red Guard zealots during the Cultural Revolution. Education under the Imperial system was reserved for a small minority and this did not change until the collapse of the amnchu Dynasty in the early 20th century. HBC has begun to acquire some basic information about the Chinese educational system over time, but we still have very limited information on chronological trends in Chinese school wear and uniforms.

Uniforms
Chinese school children in the 2000s all wear uniforms. The uniforms, however, are quite different. There is no national style, rather each school selects its on uniform. There appear to be regional differences. A HBC reader who has provided information has only been to Peking, Dalian, Suzhou and Shanghai. These are all big cities (between 1 and 15 million) in the prosperous eastern part of the country. I don�t think they are representative of the rural areas of the West and South. Some schools in the less prosperous areas may not require uniforms.
Seasonality

The uniforms are seasonal, depending on where the school is located in China. China is a large country. Northern China can be quite cold in the winter. Southern China bordering on Vietnam has a tropical climate. The children's school uniforms reflect these differences.

Styles
Chinese school uniforms tend to be basic and quite casual in style. Some are rather like gym uniforms. The summer uniforms usually consist of short pants and a shirt in the same style, sometimes in quite bright colors. Sailor collars are frequent for girls. One favorite style is a colored suit with piping in white or a contrasting color.

Pioneer Scarves
Children used to wear their school uniforms with red Young Pioneer scarves, but this is now much less common.


India

Boys' Clothes
India is one of the most populace countries on earth. It is composed of a large number of ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. Many of these groups have their own distinctive clothing styles and cultural traditions. The British colonial Raj also was very influential. India is a very large country when regions that have different climates which has also affected fashion and clothing. At this time we have very limited information on Indian boys' clothes. Hopefully our Indian readers will provide is some information to understand boys' fashion trends in this important country.

Chronology
HBC has not yet developed detailed information on chronological trends in Indian fashions. We have begun to develop a basic outline of Indian history. India has a marvelously colorful history which is not well known in the West. We do have some information on ancient India, the Mogul Empire, the British Raj, and the modern independent Indian Republic. Even at the time of independence, Western clothes were not widely worn in India, but that began to change in the late 20th century.

Garments
Traditional clothes men and boys wear are normally a lungi and at the most a towel hung over one shoulder, and women also a lungi plus a short blouse. You see there is not much difference between children�s and grown ups� clothes - apart from a little more freedom children observe. Here school is often an influence promoting Western dress. HBC plans to develop a glossary of Indian garments. Traditional clothing was still commonly worn in the 1960s, especially in regional areas. We note that by the 21st century that Western-style clothing is becoming increasingly common, even in rural areas. Traditional clothing has not disappeared, but is much less common than it once was. A factor here is the economic prosperity that India is experiencing. This seems even more the case for children, in part because Western styles are normally worn at school. We are not sure if the children's preferences are a factor here. Going barefoot is especially common in the poorer developing countries where parents often can not afford to buy even inexpensive footwear for their children. Climate is also a factor as these countries are primarily located in tropical areas where footwear are not needed for cold weather. Many children even go barefoot to school. It is especially common for younger children to go barefoot. One observer reports that most boys in Kerala went barefoot in the 1960s, especially from poorer families. He is not sure how common this is now.

Traditional Clothing
Traditional clothes men and boys wear are normally a lungi and at the most a towel hung over one shoulder, and women also a lungi plus a short blouse. You see there is not much difference between children�s and grown ups� clothes - apart from a little more freedom children observe. Traditional clothing was still commonly worn in the 1960s, especially in regional areas.

Western Clothing
School is often an influence promoting Western dress. We note that by the 21st century that Western-style clothing is becoming increasingly common, even in rural areas. Traditional clothing has not disappeared, but is much less common than it once was. A factor here is the economic prosperity that India is experiencing. This seems even more the case for children, in part because Western styles are normally worn at school. We are not sure if the children's preferences are a factor here.

Footwear
Going barefoot is especially common in the poorer developing countries where parents often can not afford to buy even inexpensive footwear for their children. Climate is also a factor as these countries are primarily located in tropical areas where footwear are not needed for cold weather. Many children even go barefoot to school. It is especially common for younger children to go barefoot. One observer reports that most boys in Kerala went barefoot in the 1960s, especially from poorer families. He is not sure how common this is now.


Children's Clothing
Since the environmental situation has always been the main factor to define the type of clothing, grown ups and children wore - and in many cases still wear - similar clothes. Only school uniform has created a new style like in many countries influenced by the British and Iberian culture: boys wear kakhi or blue shorts and white shirt, girls a similar short skirt and white blouse. This is true only for higher schools, not for everybody. New is that boys do not wear some kind of skirt to school but short pants, and girls�skirt is much shorter than in traditional - and still home- - clothing. In small village schools they wear the common clothes: the girls a long skirt, a sari or the Punjabi dress plus blouse, the boys the lungi as usual. When the children come home from school, they have to take a shower, often meaning dosing themselves with water kept in a cool spot in the home, and put on traditional clothes - at least in more traditional families and casts such as brahminical casts. This may create a feeling of safety in the social layer they belong to. In villages and the common and mostly low cast-families this is not taken that much serious: children wear a piece of cloth (white or patterned) wound around the waist. For girls it resembles a real skirt, but for boys it is rather this piece of cloth which can be folded up as can be seen in some of my photographs to make it shorter and more comfortable and cooler for play. Often when a stranger appears thy let the lungi fall to full length.

Iran

Iran was formerly called Persia. We have some information on Ancient Persia. We have very little information on modern Iran and do not yet have an individual country page. We do have a page on Zoroastrianism. It is one of the world's great religious traditions and was the religion of the Persian Empire. We have very little information about Iranian school wear at this time. We have on image of schoolboys in Yzed about 1908. We believe that smocks have commonly been worn, primarily by girls. We have a biography on Vartan Gregorian, an Arminian Christian.

Vartan Gregorian (Iran, 1934)
Vartan Gregorian is the famous American intellectual, academic, and university president. He was born in 1934, Tabriz, Iran. He belonged to the small Armenian Christian community in Tabriz where he grew up. He came from a rather poor family and has written interestingly in his recent book, The Road to Home (2003), about the family's need to blend into the Islamic culture of Iran during the 1930s.

Childhood Clothing
A family portrait shows Vartan at age of 3 in 1937. He wears a dark short pants suit with button-on short trousers. Notice the large white buttons. He wears unusually short long black stockings with hose supporters that show underneath his shorts because the stockings are hardly long enough. I suspect that this is not so much a matter of current style as of poverty and the need to make do on a very tight family budget. The stockings were probably intended originally for a younger and shorter boy. Note that the family dressed their son in western-style clothes rather than in native Iranian boys' clothing.

Iraqi Boys' Clothes
At the present time our thoughts are with the brave American and British military personnel that set about to liberate the Iraqi people. Our thoughts are also with the children of Iraq which have long suffered under Saddam's brutal rule. The accounts of cruelty, including the killing and torture of children defy belief, but so did the accounts of NAZI cruelty coming out of Europe during World War II. Saddam in his various wars and efforts to build Weapons of Mass Destruction has spent an estimated $500 billion. He inherited perhaps the most advanced country in the Arab world when he seized absolute power in 1979. Think what Iraq would be like today if he had used that money to benefit the Iraqi people.

Iraq is perhaps the most westernized Arab country. Until Saddam seized power it was making considerable progress in building the infrastructure of a modern country. This was reflected somewhat in fashion trends. HBC has not acquired information about Iraqi boys' clothing. This is part because of Saddam's horrific regime; few Iraqis have had access to the internet. We note almost note Iraqi visitors to HBC. Hopefully that is about to change. While we have received relatively little information from Arab and other Islamic countries, we have noted a good bit of internet traffic from those countries, including Iran, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. Pakistani garment countries in particular are actively seeking business opportunities. From Iraq, however, we note virtually no activity on the internet.

Israel

Boys' Clothes
HBC ha encountered difficulties assessing Israeli boys' clothing. Much of the population of Israel was either born in other countries or have parents that were born in other countries. We have relatively limited information about boys who have actually grown up in Israel

Japan

Boys' Clothes
Japanese children's clothes, as do the clothes chosen for children in other countries, reflect large social, political, and economic trends. Often these trends are difficult to assess and isolate. In Japan these forces have been much more obvious. The Japanese militarists who seized control of the country proceeded to outfit children, boys and girls, for the new public education system in military uniforms to be regimented for building a new Japan. Japanese children made the transition to western dress before many of their parents. After the cataclysm of World War II (1941-45) the Japanese again turned to Europe choosing briefly cut short pants to please their mother's fashion sense and their father's desire to toughen them up. The power of tradition is no where more obvious than the fact that secondary school boys continue to wear Prussian cadet uniforms 125 years after Prussia disappeared and after enduring one of the most cataclysmic military defeats in modern history.

Garments
Japanese boys in the 20th century, especially after World War I (1914-18) have generally worn Western clothes. Boys have, however, worn suits much less than American and European boys. Headwear has been different. Few Japanese boys have worn smocks, except for school wear. Boys wore a wide range of shirts. Casual "T"-shirts or other casual styles were very popular. Boys commonly wore short pants. Initially long baggy ones, but after Japan's defeat in World War II the European fashion of briefly cut shorts became very popular. Leather shoes have been worn much less than in Europe. Boys generally wore sneakers after World War II, except for very formal occasions.

Headwear
Headwear has been different. Younger children wore a wide range of different hat and cap styles. Baseball caps became very popular with older boys in the post-War era. Boys wore a variety of caps to school both as part of uniforms and at schools which did not require uniforms. They were often bright color, a safety measure to help motorists spot the children walking to school.

Suits
Japanese boys do not wear suits nearly as commonly as American and European schools. Few Japanese are Christians where they would dress up each Sunday for church. One of the most common reasons for buying a suit is when families apply to private schools to enroll their children and then also at the entrance ceremony. Suits are also sometimes worn by older boys when they graduate from elementary school. Most of the boys, however, wear their new junior high school uniform for the graduation ceremony.

Smocks
We have little information about Japanese smocks. As far as we can tell, few Japanese boys have worn smocks. The only photograph we have found has been a Japanese boy, probably about 1930 wearing what looks like a smock. The time line here is relatively narrow because until after World War I, Japanese boys mostly wore traditional clothes. The major exception here appears to be school wear. We see some modern pre-school children wearing smocks. This appears to be fairly common in pre-schools. We are not sure about the chronology here. We have yet to see boys wearing smocks, however, in primary school.

Shirts
Boys wore a wide range of shirts. Casual "T"-shirts or other casual styles were very popular.


Pants
Japanese boys have traditionally worn both short and long pants with a sharp age divide. Primary school boys usually wore short pants of varying styles depending on the time period. As soon as they graduated from elementary school at about 12 years of age they immediately stopped wearing short pants. Only in the 1990s have older boys begun wearing shorts, but only casual shorts--never dressy ones. We notice boy�s athletic wearing trainer pants and jeans in the 1980s.

Hosiery
I am not sure about Japanese boy's hosiery in the early 20th century. We know that long stockings were worn in cold weather. After World War II, Japanese boys commonly wore long stockings, especially during cool weather. An example is a younger boy in 1947. They were replaced by tights in the 1950s, although we are not sure about the precise chronology. Knee socks were also popular. Japanese boys often wore white socks, both ankle socks and knee socks. Tube socks caught on very big in Japan during the late 1970s, reaching a peak of popularity in the mid 80s when the great majority of boys out of uniform wore very short shorts and tube socks, often with even more elaborate stripes than were true in the States. Even boys in school uniforms wore striped tube socks at schools that had no sock uniform requirement. Other than blue jeans (resisted by many schools and many parents), that was the first piece of American boys fashion to catch on big in Japan. Other American styles were to follow in its wake--the baggy casual shorts. In fact, Japanese boys have hung on to tube socks and still wear them with the modern knee length shorts--it looks rather strange in comparison to how Japanese boys used to dress.

Footwear
Traditional footwear in Japan was the zori sandal which appears to have been the inspiration to the modern flip-flop. Leather shoes have been worn much less than in Europe. Boys generally wore sneakers after World War II, except for very formal occasions. I'm not sure just why this was, but believe sneakers were less expensive than leather shoes.

Korea

Boys' Clothes: Chronology
Korea was annexed by the Japanese in the early 20th century and then administered as a colony. Clothing for boys continued to follow traditional styles. We have very limited information on traditional styles at this time. Korean boys even in the early 20thb century began to wear western style-clothes in urban areas. The Japanese introduced school uniforms, using the same styles as used in Japan. Korea remained a Japanese colony until surrender to the Allies in 1945. Korea was then occupied by the Soviets in the north and the Americans in the south. Until 1945 clothing styles were quite traditional except for some modern styles in the larger cities. There was very little difference between styles worn in the north and south. Since them very significant differences have developed. Clothing in Korea was affected by the poverty of the country, made worse after North Korea invaded South Korea by the destruction occurring during the Korean War (1950-53). The European styles adopted in Japan have been very influential in Korea. Boys in Korea wore short shorts and also tights as was the case in Japan. Korean boys now wear the latest European and American styles.

Boys' Clothes: Garments
Korean children mostly wore traditional clothing in the first half of the 20th century. Some boys wore Western garments in the cities, but traditional clothing was more common. We do not yet have detailed information on the various traditional garments involved. This did not begin to change until after World War II and the Korean War. The change may have occurred faster in the North as it was more industrialized with a larger urban population. Substantial change took place in the South during the 1960s. By the 1970s, Koreans boys were mostly wearing Western clothes. The garments we have noted were essentially the same as worn in Japan. We see country children by the 1970s wearing the same Western clothing styles as worn in the cities. Girls wore both pants and dresses. Boys wore T-shirts and shorts in the summer. Track suits seem popular in colder weather. Younger children commonly wore colorful tights. We note that Korean catalogs still offer tights for younger children, both boys and girls. Sneakers were very popular and continue to be so.