A management program viz. Total Quality Management (TQM) is more of an approach than a program. Before it started gaining a steady popularity in the early 1980’s, 1950 was its origination time. The TQM depicts a combination of the culture, attitude and the organization of any company. The culture of any company covers all aspects ranging from the operations and processes conducted in most suitable manner till rectification and abolition of errors and defects.

All companies have their organizational objectives like marketing, finance, design, engineering and production, customer service etc. TQM emphasizes exactly on the standards that are inclined on meeting all those along with customer needs and their satisfaction levels. For-a-while.

In simpler form, from TQM’s perspective, an organization or a business or a company is a collection of processes, like said earlier. With time in course, knowledge and experience is accrued by both, the company as well as its employees. And to take advantage of the same for ongoing advancement should be the attitude; that is what TQM ensures with its philosophy, “Do the right things, right at the first time, every time”. Erstwhile, TQM was mad applicable to manufacturing operations and this lasted for some years, however, with time in advancement and with demand, it was adopted by infinitely variable sectors. This adaptation happened due to its much versatile and multipurpose character. As a result, TQM is now being acknowledged as a broad management device which is pertinent to a horde of service and public sector organizations, given the very much customized progression of it in form of various versions of the original predecessor.

TQM has undoubtedly introduced newer ways to the traditional methods of performing business. A common analysis of the three words of the title-

Total – The whole
Quality – Degree of excellence to a product or service
Management – The art of administering, controlling and directing etc.

The Principles of TQM

These principles are the guiding ideologies of TQM that is committing to a quality focused system, identifying customer satisfaction as the key indicator for quality services, showing reception for novel strategies for upbringing a gradual and enduring advancement of the company’s products and services. When we talk of what is stated here, we signify the importance of it by spotting client issues and requisitions or pre-requisitions as prime important factors. Such an adept approach if lived out can illustrate service effectiveness and the customer satisfaction level can not only be met but exceeded substantially.

The foremost answer to all challenging situations is to cross check management systems and organizational behavior of a company. With proper identification of inaccuracy there, immediate refinement plans need to be implemented, such dedication is the necessity of a managerially exigent situation. The driving force encompasses building responsiveness to changes, promoting participation of stakeholders and empowered personnel. Now, the obligation of acknowledging any organizational change for service provisions rests on senior levels nevertheless, the change manifests at all levels of the body. TQM’s success is directly proportional to the leader’s role and hence, it is more likely to succeed in those organizations where the leaders play a supportive role rather than being wily.

Six Key Concepts

The concepts stated below may be further required to be framed and developed in accordance to suit an organization’s specific aptness.

1. Customer Satisfaction – At all Cost
2. Never Ending Improvement Process
3. Control over Business Processes
4. Upstream Preventive Management
5. Ongoing Preventive Action
6. Leadership & Teamwork


Firstly, in implementation of TQM is to maintain the organization's current reality. If track record of effective responsiveness of the organization to the environment has been kept, and if in the past there has been any successful change in the way it used to operate as needed, TQM implementation will be an easy achievement. Otherwise, there will be both, employee skepticism and a lack of experienced adaptors. If this condition succeeds, a complete program of management and leadership development may be established. An internal management audit is a good measurement to spot the current situations of organizational performance and to know where in need of change. Before implementing TQM, organization should be in healthy situation. If an organization has problems such as a very unbalanced funding base, feeble administrative policy, lack of managerial skill, or poor employee morale, TQM would not be suitable.


Tools of TQM are an entrenched set of methods that can be done evenly fine to both process upgrading as well as to the growth of business scheduling. In addition, the management team can use the consistent policies developed from this project for future business plans.


1. Tichey, N. (1983). Managing Strategic Change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
2. Smith, AK, 1993. Total Quality Management in the Public sector. Quality Progress, June, 1993
3. Young (Pauline V) Scientific social surveys and Research, New Delhi PHI, 1987.
4. FEIGENBAUM, (Armad V) Total Quality Management Ed3. Singapore: MGH, 1987.
5. Porrnima M Charantimath Total Quality Management 2003 Pearson Education Singapore
6. Dale H Besterfield Total Quality Management Ed3 Singapore Pearson Education Singapore

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