This article aims at studying the various centers for the production of home textiles in India. First of all, the article gives a brief introduction to the wonderful country that is India, after which it explains the meaning of home textiles. This article then covers the various production hubs in India for the production of home textiles.
India fact file
Area: 3.3 million square kilometers
Capital: New Delhi
The 7th largest country in the world
Consists of 28 states and 7 centrally administered Union Territories
Population: 1.027,015,247 (as per the figures of the 2001 census)
Growth rate of population: 1.6%
Literacy rate: 65.38%
President: Ms. Pratibha Patil
Prime Minister: Dr. Manmohan Singh
Major religions: Hindu, Islam, Christianity, Sikkhism, Buddhism and Jainism
Languages: Hindi is the national language; however, the Indian Constitution recognizes 17 major languages.
Industries: Agriculture is the largest industry of India, followed by the textile industry. The Indian textile industry is the second largest in the world, next only to China. India is fast emerging as the major player in the world textile industry in the post quota era.
Labor force: 509.3 million
GDP: 4 trillion USD
Growth rate of GDP: 8.5% p.a.
Exports: 112 billion USD (as per recent figures)
Major export destinations: USA, China, United Arab Emirates, Singapore, United Kingdom and Hong Kong
Imports: 187.9 billion USD (as per recent figures)
Major import sources: China, USA and Switzerland
What are home textiles?
To understand the meaning of home textiles, it is necessary to understand the concept of technical textiles. The textiles that are not produced for decorative purposes, but with certain specific intentions are called technical textiles. Technical textiles include:
- Geo textiles
- Home textiles
- Agro textiles
- Industrial textiles
- Medical textiles
- Mobile textiles
- Packing textiles
- Sports textiles
- Protective textiles
- Building textiles
- Smart or interactive textiles
Home textile is a rather important part of technical textiles. Home textile is that part of technical textiles that help a person in adding his own personalized touch to his home; in other words, they convert a house into a home. They refer to the textiles that are used in a home, including curtains, shower curtains, bedspreads and pillow covers, upholstery, aprons as well as wall papers.
Home textile production in India
The home textile industry is quite widespread in India. There are a number of centers in India wherein the production of home textiles has been undertaken since decades. The major home textile hubs in India are:
Karur: Karur is a small town in Southern India that specializes in the production of home textiles. It is especially known for the production of pillow covers, bedspreads as well as kitchen and table linen. Table mats from Karur are world famous. Karur mainly produces cotton home textiles by way of hand looms, while power looms are gradually being accepted. The traders of Karur are largely engaged in the supply of home textile raw material throughout India, the major markets being Delhi, Panipat and Mumbai among others. Some of them are engaged in exports.
On account of large scale production, Karur gets the benefit of reduced costs. This, together with the exceptional quality of its products, has enabled it to carve out a niche for itself in the production of home textiles. The turnover of the town was recently noted to be around Rs.3000 crore.
In spite of the obvious advantages that Karur has with respect to home textile production, it also has several limitations in this respect. The major drawbacks that the town faces are lack of proper roads, lack of availability of skilled manpower, lack of communication skills, shortage of good hotels and lack of organization, which limit growth to the full potential.
The home textile producers of Karur specialize in certain finishes, such as PVA, starch, stain repellent, water repellent and silicon finish. Some producers have begun the use of organic cotton and the use of different fabrics such as polyester, silk and poly cotton.
Panipat: The city of Panipat located in the state of Haryana is a major producer of woollen home textile products. The Panja durries produced in Panipat are famous the world over. These durries were initially made by rural women as part of dowry for their daughters.
The Panipat home textile industry has now grown to the extent that it earns a turnover of nearly Rs. 3000 crore per annum. The easy availability of raw materials and economies of scale leading to low cost of production are the major factors which have led to the development of Panipat as a major production and export hub for home textiles. It has also developed as a sourcing hub for raw material for home textiles.
Producers in Panipat have of late started experimenting with different fabrics such as polyester, silk and poly silk. Some producers have also started the use of natural fabrics such as bamboo and soya.
Like Karur, Panipat also has certain limitations which prevent it from reaching its full potential lack of mechanization and skilled manpower, lack of proper organization as well as lack of efficient infrastructure facilities. Palliwal Exports, SPJ Textiles Pvt. Ltd., Mahajan Overseas and Liberty are some of the eminent players in Panipat in terms of home textiles.
Cannanore: Cannanore, located in South India, is another hub that is well known for the production of home textiles. About 60% of the textile production done in this area is home textile. The home textile industry of Cannanore has an annual turnover of Rs. 300 crore.
In spite of Karur and Cannanore being located close together geographically, there is a notable difference between the products manufactured in the two places. The water that is available in Cannanore has special properties, due to which the fabric produced here has a different kind of shine and look.
Home textile producers in Cannanore are beginning to use fabrics such as cotton viscose, silk and cotton. Producers here are also adding value with the help of embroidery, bead work and sequin work.
Chennai: Chennai is the fourth largest metropolitan city in India and is the capital of Tamilnadu. It has emerged as a major production and export hub for home textiles. Being well connected with other parts of the world through road, air and water, Chennai does not face the limitations as the other hubs do. Moreover, being a metropolis, it has good infrastructural facilities and latest technology. It is comparatively easier to obtain skilled manpower and intellectual designers.
Home textile producers in Chennai usually source raw materials from Karur, to which value addition is undertaken. These producers are able to deliver better quality products within a shorter period of time with the benefit of technology and the services of experts. Several of these producers are also engaged in the export of home textiles. BKS Textiles and ADJ Textiles are two major players in home textiles in this area.
Delhi: Delhi, the capital of India, has emerged as one of the major production and export centres for home textiles. Being a metropolis, it has an efficient infrastructure and easy availability of skilled manpower. Most of the producers in Delhi source their raw material from Panipat, to which value addition is done.
It does not face the problems that are faced by the other traditional hubs, being one of the largest cities of India. Orient Craft, Modelama, Handicrafts Collections, Trendsetters and Vrindavan Overseas are among the major players in home textiles in Delhi and its surrounding areas.
Mumbai: Mumbai, previously Bombay, the large metropolis and the capital of Maharashtra, is also one of the major production and export centres for home textiles. Like Delhi and Chennai, producers in Mumbai also source raw material from places such as Karur, Salem, Erode and Bengalooru (previously Bangalore) and add value to it. Home textile producers from Mumbai are popular the world over for their unique and innovative products.
Being one of the largest cities of India, it has the benefits of skilled labor availability and efficient infrastructure. Due to the availability of technology, these producers are able to produce large quantities of products of the desired quality, within the desired time. Being located very near to a port, the producers of Mumbai are able to export goods easily and give delivery to clients within shorter lead times. On account of the high operating costs in Mumbai, several producers have established plants in surrounding areas like Vapi and Solapur. Those producers who have set up their plants in Mumbai have huge plants so as to get the benefits of scale.
The home textile producers in Mumbai have carved out a niche for themselves, particularly in case of bedspreads, pillow and cushion covers and bathroom textiles. Alok, Siyaram and S.Kumars are the major players in the field of home textiles in Mumbai.
Bengalooru: Bengalooru, previously Bangalore, is the capital city of Karnataka. It has emerged as a manufacturing and export hub for home textiles, especially in silk. Bengalooru is largely engaged in the production of fabric, which is mainly done using power looms. This fabric is then sourced to other parts of India for value addition.
On account of the high price of pure silk, producers in Bengalooru are now experimenting with fabrics such as artificial silk, wool silk and cotton silk among other fabrics. The producers in Bengalooru get the benefit of modern technology and efficient infrastructure, as is the case with large cities.
Mirzapur and Badhohi: Mirzapur and Badhohi are small cities located in Uttar Pradesh, which are major centers for the production of floor coverings and carpets. The collective turnover of the two cities is around Rs. 2000 crore.
Being small cities, Mirzapur and Badhohi have infrastructural problems such as poor roads, lack of reliable power supply and lack of hotel facilities, due to which they have not been able to achieve growth to their optimum potential.
Jaipur: The Pink City of Jaipur has also become an important centre for the production of home textiles, especially those using the traditional techniques of tie-and-dye, block printing and appliqu. A few producers in Jaipur have also started undertaking bead work to add more value to the product.
Jaipur faces tough competition from Delhi on account of the geographical proximity between the two regions. However, Jaipur gets the benefit of lower wage rates as compared to Delhi.
Jaipur is a well-known tourist destination, visited by a number of foreign tourists. This has helped largely in the development of Jaipur as a home textile production and export center.
It is evident that India is fast emerging as a major production and export centre for home textiles. There are a number of centers that are specifically engaged in the production of traditional home textiles, while some are engaged in sourcing of raw material and value addition. One can say The home textile industry is thriving in India.
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