Source: www.suessen.com

Preface:


Nearly 4 years after the introduction of the compact spinning process by the market leaders and pioneers Rieter and SUESSEN, which has opened a vast opportunity in its application for the textile industry being dominated for the most part by conventional ring spinning in the past, it still leaves abundant room for exploitation. Compact spinning although with initial hiccups owing to its entirely new concept of spinning has successfully overcome the technical snags creating an awareness and recognition in the textile industry. Nevertheless compact spinning has proven to be beneficial for both the spinners and the fabric manufacturers in the clothing industry. As a matter of fact, the success of compact spinning is confirmed by the entry of new-comers intending to take a share of this prospective future.


Compact yarn in its initial stage had mainly focused on tapping the vast cost saving opportunities in the weaving sector as it involved numerous intermediate processes prior to the weaving of the fabric on looms. A weaver could be supplemented with enough cost saving data and calculations displaying the economics of the compact yarn in the various processing stages such as warping, sizing, de-sizing and subsequent increase in loom efficiency.


With these above-mentioned cost advantages incurred whilst the usage of compact yarns, a weaver recovers the higher cost of the yarn and subsequently benefits from the advantages of the compact yarn in further fabric making process. Unlike weaving with numerous intermediate processes, the knitting industry only converts the yarn supplied in cones into a fabric without any auxiliary preparation and hence involving in no significant process cost saving benefits to the knitter. Nevertheless in recent times compact yarn has found its structural advantages more in the field of knitting, thus creating a distinct shift in the interest and acceptance of its application in knitting. As a matter of fact the knitter yields the benefits of compact yarn after the fabric has been knitted and processed. The revelation of the compact yarn advantages is perceived in the shrinkage characteristics of the knitted fabric whilst processing and even after numerous washing cycles.


This article on the contrary deals solely with benefits of compact yarn in the knitted fabric and emphasizes on the cost saving aspect after value addition by means of exemplification.


Case Study: Structural advantages of compact yarn influencing the reduced shrinkage in knitted fabrics


Spinning:


Below are some technical details of the yarn spun to perform the experiment


Count in Ne                          :    45/1*

T.M                                     :    3.23

TP                                       : 21.7

RKM (Ustertensojet 4)           :    16.68

Elongation (Ustertensojet 4)   :    3.82

Preparation                          : unwaxed


* The yarn count had been spun a bit finer as to attain the desired fabric weight owing to the properties of compact yarn.


Knitting:


To obtain substantial evidence confirming the in-evident advantages and cost effectiveness of compact yarn, various forms of knits were produced from the same yarn count. Knitting structures such as Single Jersey, 1x1 Rib, 2x2 Rib and Interlock were being knitted to analyze the degree of cost effectiveness incurred whilst the application of compact yarn.


The yarn knitted in various fabric structures was fabric piece-dyed in different colours to evaluate the influence of the colour shades on the properties of the yarn.


 

Experiment:


All fabrics knitted underwent the same processing stages after the circular knitting process. Below is a short description of the various processing stages involved subsequently to the manufacture of the various circular knits.


Processing stages of the fabrics:


  1. Fabric-dyeing was performed in light and dark shades
  2. Balloon padding
  3. Relax drying
  4. Compacting


Then the processed fabrics underwent the standard washing tests to determine shrinkage advantages of compact yarn owing to its unique structural properties.


Washing testing method:


To obtain a reliable result, the washing tests were conducted on a sample size of 25 x 25 cm and 50 x 50 cm of knitted fabrics for all knits in their various shades.


Testing procedure:


All samples underwent a computerized programme of 3 washing cycles at 40C and 3 rinses and eventually tumble dried at 80C. Samples were tested for the shrinkage percent after the tumble-drying process.

(Refer to table 1)



Knit Structure



Gauge



Colour


Washing temperature


Drying temperature


Sample size


Shrinkage %


Length

Width

Single Jersey

30gg

White

40C

80C

25 x 25 cm

-4%

-4%



White

40C

80C

50 x 50 cm

-4%

-4%



Light Blue

40C

80C

25 x 25 cm

-4%

-2%



Light Blue

40C

80C

50 x 50 cm

-2%

-2%

1 x 1 Rib

18gg

Light Blue

40C

80C

25 x 25 cm

-2%

-2%



Light Blue

40C

80C

50 x 50 cm

-4%

Nil



Rose

40C

80C

25 x 25 cm

-2%

-2%



Rose

40C

80C

50 x 50 cm

-3%

-2%

2 x 2 Rib

18gg

Stone

40C

80C

25 x 25 cm

-4%

-4%



Stone

40C

80C

50 x 50 cm

-4%

-5%



Dark navy

40C

80C

25 x 25 cm

-2%

-2%



Dark navy

40C

80C

50 x 50 cm

-2%

-5%


Table 1: Washing tests performed on various knits of different shades to assess the shrinkage percentage after 3 washes and 3 rinses.


 

Conclusion:


From the above tabulation the reduced shrinkage in the knitted fabrics in different knits and colours is attributed to the structural advantages of compact yarn.


In the case of knitted fabrics manufactured from conventional ring-spun yarn the fabric shrinkage after conducting the washing tests lies between 5-6% depending on the knit structure, whereas with the usage of compact yarn the fabric shrinkage is confined to a range between 3-4% resulting in a reduction by nearly 35-40%.


Due to the significantly lower fabric shrinkage the weight loss, which is considered in the fabric costing, is minimized from around 5% in conventional yarns to 2-3% in compact yarns and thus effecting in a net saving of 2% in fabric weight loss.


General advantages of compact yarn in knitting (physical properties)


  • Clearer loop structure with less loop cross-infringing fibres
  • Higher brilliancy and softer handle
  • Fewer end-breaks
  • Low emission of fly and dust
  • Usage of un-waxed yarn is feasible
  • Reduction in abrasion by 30%
  • Reduces the wear and tear of needles and other related components, thus avoiding holes or stripes in the fabric
  • Fabric appearance is enhanced due to the uniformity and low yarn hairiness


Structural advantages of compact yarn in knitting contributing to its cost effectiveness


  • Significantly lower fabric shrinkage by around 35-40% after fabric processing, resulting in net saving of
  • 2% in fabric weight loss
  • Dimensional stability is retained after many washes owing to the better pilling resistance
  • Fabric gloss after yarn mercerization is retained even after several washes




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