Compact Spinning has firmly established itself as THE method of making superior ring yarn, with SUESSEN's EliTe® being the world's leading system.

The goal of compacting is to align the fibres in parallel and very close position to each other immediately prior to the twist insertion. This fibre arrangement will give compact yarn with all its characteristics. The elimination of the spinning triangle is merely a consequence of this arrangement.

Let me try to explain what is actually going on in the compacting zone.

All successful compacting systems are characterized by the following:

a.) Between exit of the normal 3-roller drafting system and a nipping line there is a compacting zone

b.) This zone consists of a suction tube with a slot inclined relative to the direction of the yarn path. Negative pressure is applied at this slot.

c.) A perforated transportation means (e.g. lattice apron, metal drum with holes) is used to move the fibres across this inclined slot.

There are two nearly independent physical effects which help to achieve the goal mentioned above:

1. The pneumatic effect

Fig. 1 shows the airflow as it has been calculated (using FEM methods)


The drawing might require some explanations: imagine the EliTube cut along the line AA, as indicated in the small picture in the right hand bottom corner of Fig. 1. The arrows indicate the direction of the airflow as it enters the slot.

It is easy to imagine that the airflow tries to move the fibre strand towards the centre of the slot. The width of the fibre mass is reduced; a step in the correct direction. This effect is present regardless of the inclination of the slot. Adding a lid on top of the slot, as done by some systems, may enhance it. This effect merely pushes the fibres closer together without any impact of them being parallel.

2. The effect due to the inclination of the slot (Fig. 2)

FIG: 2

This is a dynamic effect. Assume fibre A has left the front nipping point. Its front portion is now on the lattice apron (perforated drum, or the like) and moving with the speed of the lattice apron. As its head crosses the upstream edge of the slot nothing at all happens.

It gets interesting when it tries to cross the downstream edge:

The suction applied to the slot does not allow the fibre to cross the edge. It is therefore forced to move along the edge. Now by the law of vectorial addition of speed (we are still well below Einsteins Theory of Relativity) the speed of the portion of fibres along the edge increases to



This increase in speed of the portion of fibre moving along the downstream edge causes the fibres to be gently stretched.


Now, imagine a fibre B coming out of the front nipping point at a distance d from fibre A. It suffers the same fate so to speak. It will also be unable to cross the downstream edge of the slot and will align itself closely to fibre A, as they move to the end of the slot.

Thus, a fibre bundle having a certain width upon leaving the front nipping point, and with the individual fibres neither parallel nor stretched, is transformed into a bundle where the fibres are perfectly parallel and close to each other.

Naturally, the two effects complement each other, but it is obvious that the second effect is several orders of magnitude larger than the first one; also only the second effect stretches the fibres at the same time. As may be imagined, there is a complicated relationship between the optimum angle α, the suction pressure and the properties of the various fibres.

If the compacting system allows V0, the speed of the perforated means to be varied relative to the speed of the front roller, the stretching of the fibres may be controlled further.

Much of these important details are not yet understood well theoretically, and as so often in spinning one must rely on experience, and one finds surprises every once in a while!

About the Author:

The author is the Managing Director of Spindelfabrik Suessen GmbH.