Textiles and clothing are one of the most important sectors of the Turkish economy and foreign trade. These sectors had a 21% share in total export volume in 2007. There are more than 35,000 textile and clothing companies in Turkey, 65 of which were among the list of "Turkey's Top 500 Industrial Enterprises" which was announced by Istanbul Chamber of Industry for the year 2006.
The companies of fiber and yarn (or integrated with fiber and/or yarn production) in the list of "Turkey's Top 500 Industrial Enterprises" are given in the table below.
Fiber and Yarn Companies in the List of "Turkey's Top 500 Industrial Enterprises"
Source: Istanbul Chamber of Industry
Turkey is one of the main actors in the world textile and clothing industry. The Turkish clothing industry is the fourth largest supplier in the world, and the second largest supplier in the EU. The Turkish textile industry, which is in the worlds top ten exporters, is also the second largest supplier to the EU. The Turkish textile and clothing industry has a significant role in world trade, the capability to meet the high standards, and can compete in international markets in terms of high quality, design and a wide range of products.
Parallel to the developments in the Turkish textile and clothing industry the Turkish fibers and yarns industry has developed and as a consequence of the increase in demand for textile and clothing products from both domestic and foreign markets, the production, exports and investment in the fibers and yarns industry have increased.
Cotton is the essential raw material for the countrys textile and clothing industry and Turkey is one of the worlds important cotton growers. Turkey ranked seventh in the production of cotton with a total amount of 820,000 tons in the 2006/2007 season. As one of the results of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), which is the largest project ever attempted in Turkey, cotton production in Turkey has begun to increase.
Fiber and Yarn Production in Turkey (ton)
Source: State Planning Organization
Due to the availability of huge amounts of raw cotton in Turkey, the cotton textile industry has shown great development as the Turkish cotton yarns industry. Today, Turkey is one of the largest countries in the world in terms of its cotton yarn production capacity. Cotton yarn production in Turkey was about 1.1 million tons in 2005.
As well as the cotton textiles, the Turkish manmade textile sector is also a well - developed industry. Today, Turkey is very strong in all areas of synthetic fibers and yarns production and processing. Turkey has the eighth largest capacity for synthetics in the world with 1.2 million tons/year.
Turkey was the second largest investor in short staple spindles and open end rotors, which are regarded as the most advanced technology in the world, in the period 19952006. In terms of installed capacities of short staple spindles and open end rotors Turkey ranked respectively fifth and second in the world.
Turkey also has a strong woolen industry and is the third largest mohair producer in the world. Turkey was one of the main investors of long staple spindles (wooltype) in the world in the period 19952006 as well.
The mills are spread out all over Turkey, mostly İstanbul, Bursa, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, Adana, İzmir, Kayseri, Malatya, Tekirdağ, Uşak, Hatay and Denizli. Most of the large mills have integrated production from fibers to the clothing. Many Turkish fiber and yarn manufacturers have ecological labels for their products and environmental management systems in their plants.
Turkish textile and clothing exports have continued to increase even after the expiration of the global textile quota system at the end 2004, as agreed under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC). The sector continues to maintain and enhances its competitiveness despite the abolition of quotas. With its quality products, Turkey has been increasing her share in the main markets, especially in the European market which has high standards and sophisticated customer needs.
The total value of fibers and yarns exported in 2005 was about 1.5 billion dollars. It showed an enormous increase by 16% in 2006 and surpassed 1.7 billion dollars. In 2007 the increase ratio was 7% and export of fibers and yarns reached to 1.8 billon dollars. The main export products in 2007 were synthetic and artificial filament yarns, synthetic and artificial filament staple fibers, yarns of synthetic and artificial filament staple fibers and cotton yarns. Italy (13%), Germany (6%), the USA (5%), Belgium (5%), UK (4%), Spain (4%), Egypt (4%), Poland (4%), Bulgaria (4%) and Russia (4%) were the major markets for Turkish fibers and yarns companies in 2007.
Turkey's Fibers and Yarns Exports (US $ 1000)
Source: Undersecretariat for Foreign Trade
Turkish fibers and yarns producers and exporters participate in many international fairs in abroad. In addition, the
Turkish fiber and yarn products are exhibited in international and national
fairs organized in Turkey. Major fairs which will be organized in Turkey in 2008 are: