Abstract


The paper reports the physical and mechanical properties of hand-woven carpets, which have been under static and dynamic forces. Two groups of wool fibres, from two parts of Iran, were prepared to spin pile yarn for the carpets. Each group of the fibres included both conventional and tanned wool. Then two yarn counts, Nm = 4/2 and 6/2, were spun for two different knot densities. After weaving the carpets, they were put under static and dynamic forces and their thickness variations were measured and plotted against time (in case of static force) or number of impacts (in case of dynamic force). The resiliency of the carpets piles after eliminating the static and dynamic forces were measured and plotted against time, too. The results were compared to each other and analysed with respect to parameters such as the type and quality of the wool fibres as well as knot density of the carpet.


Keywords: Tanned wool, physical and mechanical properties, carpet thickness, pile resiliency, static and dynamic forces


Introduction


It can be claimed that the hand woven carpet represents the great history of Iranian arts. The oldest sample of Iranian carpets found in city of SARAB (located in North West of Iran) conforms this fact [1]. During a digging, in 1949, in Syberia Mountains an Iranian hand woven carpets, named Pazyryk, was found. The pile of the carpet was made of wool with 200 knots/in [2].


The great period of creativity in carpet making took place in Persia during the Safavid period (1499-1722) under the reigns of Shah Ismail and Shah Abbas. From this period came the most glorious and outstanding rugs of historical significance. In fact, about 1,500 examples from this period are preserved in various museums and in private collections. The cities of Tabriz, Kashan, Herat, and Kerman became busy centres of rug production. Under the rule of Shah Abbas in the late 16th Century, the famous Ardebil carpet was made. Today this priceless work of art is preserved in the Victoria and Albert museum in London. The Ardebil is regarded as one of the most magnificent rugs of the world. It is approximately 17 by 34 feet with over 280 knots per square inch [2].


The central region is the main producer of Persian carpets in Iran. The capital city of Tehran has a bazaar which is the center for the marketing of Persian carpets. Isfahan is famous for its historical and cultural sites. Qom (Qum) is known for its silk woven carpets. Nain, Kashan and Varamin are also located in this region. Varamin situated in the center of Iran, and was once the capital city. Varamin produces finely knotted rugs that are woven in the city itself and in the surrounding villages. They are greatly respected which generally have a round medallion with a floral motif [3].



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About the Authors:


Seyed Abbas Mirjalili and Maryam Sharzehee are associated with Dept. of Textile Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran