Normally all the woven figured fabrics produce a figure / Image with positive colour and weave effect on one side and negative / opposite colour and weave effect of the same image on the other side. Fabrics woven with the weaves like Plain, Twill Sateen, Double cloth, Backed cloth etc are become reversible and can be used on either side. Where as fabrics woven with weaves / principles like Extra warp, Extra weft become non-reversible and could be used only one side.
Two-in-one figured fabric means a figured fabric contains two layers of cloth with two images one above the other. Each layer is woven to produce a figure / image different from other. For example, if face layer is woven with head of the coin, the back layer is with tail of the coin. The purpose of going for this fabric with two figures one backing the other is to use the fabric, by reversing, one time looking with one image and next time with the other one.
Two-in-one Jacquard fabric contains Elephant on one side and Horse on other side was developed in IIHT Salem. The principle was based on weaving two single cloth one below the other using 2 series of warp and 2 series of weft with sectional Jacquard tie and sectional punching. The two single cloths each formed with one series of warp and weft are self stitched by the warp and weft of one layer to another layer. Since this single cloth principle is well suited for weaving with medium and finer counts of yarns, the two in one fabric produced by this principle is also less in thickness suitable for door curtains and Bed spreads.
This article deals about a new type of two in one fabric produced in weft tapestry principle using coarser weft yarn producing thick fabric suitable for floor carpets and mats.
The new two in one fabric based on weft tapestry principle is developed by using 2 series of warp namely separation warp and stitching warp. The ratio between these two warps is 3:1 the weft is of one series in 4 colours. The separation warp is operated in figurative order by jacquard which decides the position of the weft. The separation warp forms three layers to decide the position of 4 layers of weft and remains in between the wefts without seen either on face side or back side. Out of 4 colour wefts (which are equal in thickness) 2 colour wefts are face image weft forming figure and ground of the face image while the other 2 colours of weft are back image weft forming figure and ground of the back image. The stitching warp runs up and down for the 4 colour wefts alternately stitching the weft float on the face and back side in plain order. Stitching warp and separating warps are separately taken in two beams. The stitching warp beam is kept in loose tension and separating warp beam is kept in normal tension.
Straight tie jacquard can be used by drawing all the stitching and separating ends through harness. Otherwise sectional tie combined with 3 healds controlled by extra hooks of the jacquard can also be employed, where jacquard with one heald control separating ends and other two healds control the stitching ends.
Two different images, one for face and other for back are decided. Two base graphs are prepared for each image separately. If straight tie is used, the number of ends taken in base graph is equal to one eighth (1/8) of the capacity of jacquard employed because the basic weave is repeating in 8x8.
Then the face image and back image has to be super imposed by using computer to know the formation of 4 different figuring parts each one indicating one type of placement of 4 colours of weft in various positions of 2 layers of 2 different images as indicated in the graph. If sectional tie jacquard is used along with 3 healds, the face image and back image are prepared separately and punched by following special punching procedure without super imposing the graph.
The figure stepping of super imposed graph thus prepared, is then scaled 8 times in end way and pick way. The four actual weaves as shown in the graph are given in 4 different figuring parts of the graph. As all the marks in the weaves indicate end up, the punching is done by punching all the marks and then laced in sequence.
Weaving is carried by using 4 shuttles containing four different colour wefts (all in equal thickness) picked in one by one order.
Interlacing diagram (widthwise cross section) showing the 4 colour effects formed, its relevant indication by pick numbers and its corresponding weaves are shown in the graph to understand the principle involved in forming the new Two in one fabric based on weft tapestry principle.
By looking into the interlacing diagram of Two in one fabric
of weft tapestry principle it can be understood that there are four different
figuring parts are formed for which four weaves are developed in 8 x 8 as shown
in the graph.
- The picks numbered 1 and 2 are face image weft forming figure and ground of the face image.
- The picks numbered 3 and 4 are back image weft forming figure and ground of the back image.
- The ends numbered 1 and 5 are stitching ends, stitching the four picks together one below the other in alternate plain order.
- The ends numbered 2 and 6 are separating ends which separate face image wefts 1, 2 to form either figure or ground of the face image on the face side.
- The ends numbered 4 and 8 are separating ends which separate back image wefts 3, 4 to form either figure or ground of the back image on the back side.
- The ends numbered 3 and 7 are separating ends which separate both the face image weft 1, 2 from the back image weft 3, 4 to form two layers one above the other.
About the Author
The author is presently serving as Deputy Director (Weaving) at Weaver's Service Centre, Bangalore.