The textile wet processing industry for apparel applications is considered to comprise of three main segments viz, yarn dyeing (including Denim yarn), piece dyeing (including garments) & the Knit dyeing. Recent years have witnessed highest growth in knit or commonly called hosiery processing. In India, this knit processing industry is spread across the country from north to south & east to west.
The Indian textile industry can be broadly classified into 2 groups based on working condition:
- Organized sector- units are well equipped with facilities like water softening (Ion exchange), TDS control (Reverse Osmosis), effluent treatment facility (water discharge/ reuse of treated water), modern machinery with auto control facilities having very high productivity & skilled work force. These units aim at value addition to fulfill stringent global customer requirements.
- Unorganized sector- units lacking above facilities & using conventional machinery, compromising on quality over cost. This sector mainly aims at producing economical products for low end sector.
The common wet processing problems associated are generally considered to be due to 3 M's (Man- Machine-Method) i.e. manual errors, mechanical limitations & inappropriate processing methods.
Apart from these there are some geographical or regional issues related to the two basic ingredients:
- The substrate -Variation in cotton fiber cultivated in various regions across the country, in terms of impurities like alkali earth & heavy metal ion content
- Water- its availability, purity & discharge/ recycling.
SDC (Symptoms, Diagnosis & Curing) Concept
The problems faced during Cotton knit wet processing in these two sectors vary widely owing to the above mentioned reasons like water, fiber sources & processing conditions. However, in order to overcome/ minimize the processing related problems it is essential to first understand the Symptoms (problems), Diagnose (ascertain the probable cause) & Cure (adopting remedial measure).
Given below are some general & common problems encountered in Knit processing & the effectiveness of the 'SDC' approach to overcome/minimize these issues. However, it is always advisable to use adequate, appropriate & optimum quality/quantity of Dyestuffs & auxiliary chemicals as per the suppliers recommendations.
Source: Technical Service, Atul Ltd (Colors Division), Atul - Valsad, Gujarat, India
To read about SDC Concept in Continuous Dyeing; click here