Dyes are intensely colored substances used for the coloration of various substrates, including paper, leather, fur, hair, food, drugs, cosmetics, waxes, greases, petroleum products, plastics, and textiles. The methods used for the application of dyes to substrate differ widely, depending upon the substrate and class of dye.

There are presently approximately some 1, 200 different commercial dyes manufactured in the United States, and another 800 are imported. Dyes can be classified on the basis of classification as acid dyes, basic dyes, direct dyes, disperse dyes, fluorescent bright lighters, reactive dyes, sulfur dyes and vat dyes. Dyes are produced by a variety of chemical reactions from raw materials; most of these materials are hazardous to humans. Our present studies based on the synthesis of direct blue dye and evaluation of their properties on lab scale.

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The authors are associated with Applied Chemistry Research Center (Textile Section) PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Pakistan