The basic nature and reactivity of the fibre can be derived by the type of chemical bond that holds the polymers together. There would always be a relation between the behaviour of the fibre to the different conditions and the type of bond holding the fibre. The types of bonds holding the fibre polymer and the amount of bond energy exerted by it are being discussed in this paper.

What are Chemical Bonds?

A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electromagnetic force attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei, or as the result of a dipole attraction.

Classification of Bonds

Chemical bond can be broadly classified as follows,

  • Intrapolymer bonds
  • Interpolymer bonds

Intrapolymer Bonds

These are bonds that are responsible for holding the atoms together to make up the fibre polymer. They are predominantly composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms. They can be taken as the bonds that are present within the fibre polymer.

The major bonds that are used for intermolecular bonding are as follow,

  • Covalent bonds
  • Amide or peptide group
  • Benzene ring
  • Ether linkages
  • Ester groups
  • Hydroxyl group
  • Nitrile group

Covalent bonds:

Covalent bonding is a common type of bonding, in which the electro negativity difference between the bonded atoms is small or nonexistent. The stability and unreactive nature of the single covalent bond joining the atoms of fibre polymers may be expressed objectively. They are practically indestructible when it occurs between carbon and carbon atoms, carbon and hydrogen, carbon and oxygen, carbon and chlorine, carbon and fluorine atoms. Their bond energy or bond strength is between 330 and 420 kilojoules.