This paper summarizes the application of natural dyes in fabric and analyzes the property of the dye in the material. Our cloth is producing pathogenic odour, bacteria, fungi and moulds. They include a variety of microorganisms like bacteria, algae, fungi and virus. Microbes require certain conditions to grow including dirt, perspiration, warm environment moisture and a receipting surface like skin or fabrics. Textiles are carriers of microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria, odour generating bacterial, mould and fungi Annatto is a natural carotenoid obtained from Bixa orellana shrub. In Recent Years, the seeds are gaining economical importance as a highly desirable colorant. The ripe fruits of annatto on drying yield annatto seed which serves as the raw material for the production of annatto colour. The coloring matter is collected from the outer part of the seed. Annatto dye is non toxic and is mainly used for coloring edible products. It is used for only the purpose of coloring edible items like butter, ghee, chocolates. Annatto is also used as an ingredients in medicine to cure fevers, dysentery and kidney diseases. Now, it is mostly used to colour the medicine like tablets and capsule. And it is used to produce ointments for curing wounds. In India, it used as an insect repellant.


Nowadays the environment aspects of effluent treatment are too complicated problems in processing industries. So due to overcome this problem, now a days eco-friendly process is required. If we used the natural coloring matters with eco friendly process, there is no need of effluent treatment. Natural dyes are eco-friendly to the environment. All natural dyes are not having good fixation to material. So some dyes require mordant for fixation. In this project, I chosen annatto for a colouring matter and will also analyze the antimicrobial property.

Plant Profile:



English name

Arnotta or Annatto plant

Indian name

        Sinduri (Sanskrit)

        Sinduriya, Latkan (Hindi)

        Rangmale (Kannada)

        Uragumanjal (Tamil)


Bixa orellana

It is a natural dye obtained from annatto tree. Annatto possess good substantive towards cotton material and give orange colour. If we use mordant means there is a chance of getting colour from light orange to orange red. It gives pleasant odor to textile material. Natural herbal products can be used for antimicrobial composition to be the effective candidates in bringing out herbal textiles. The plants and plant products are traditionally used for healing of wounds, burn-injuries and antimicrobial activity against skin infections. Several medicinal plants are used for years in treating many diseases in daily life. Plants are reliable source of potentially important bioactive natural products. The growing interest in herbs and economically useful plant is part of the movement towards green economical life style.