this study four variant of denim fabrics using three herbal extracts of Ricinus communis, Senna auriculata and Euphorbia hirta which were screened for their anti odor efficiency by finishing the methanol extracts of these herbs on the denim fabrics. Of these extracts and the condition 20kgf/cm2 Pressure, 20m/min rpm were followed by dip method. To enhance the durability of the finished fabric, wash durability test were performed and the results showed there was maximum absorbency and retentivity of anti odor finish in fabric sample D (100% cotton) when compared with other samples.


The textile industry is seeking innovative production techniques to improve the product quality. Society as well requires new finishing techniques with regard to the environmental aspect. Eco-friendly products refer to products and services that are made of chemical-free raw materials; the manufacturing of these products causes minimal harm to the environment. More and more people are going green and contributing in their own small ways to preserve nature and the beauty of the earth, as noted by

Today, denim culture is widely prominent in the tropical and sub tropical world. Denim does not mean jeans alone; it refers to a multitude of items in apparel accessories and embellishments. With the development of infinite possibilities of yarns, fabric, finishes, weaves, dyes, a wide range of denim fabrics can be manufactured to suit the varied taste of the consumer.

Textiles will have desirable aesthetic qualities if they can suppress odor causing bacteria and other types of odor causing micro-organisms. The hygiene and medical effectiveness of textiles is required to prevent the growth of dermatophytic fungi (those that cause skin diseases), pathogenic and potentially lethal micro-organisms on fibers and to prevent their infestation by insects.

The investigator considered all the above factors and selected the present study to satisfy the consumer by producing antiodor finish on denim fabric. With this objective, the following study was carried out.

To screen for the functional properties such as Anti odor from selected herbs:

  • To optimize the effective herbal combination of the functional property of the selected finishes

  • To finish the optimized herbal combination on the four selected denim fabrics

  • To evaluate the properties after and before wash of the finished fabrics

  • Anti odor evaluation on finished fabric



The following samples Sample A-68%cotton+32% Polyester, Sample B-68%cotton+32% Poly Lycra, Sample C-68%cotton+32% core spun Lycra and Sample D -100% cotton were sourced from the market, was used for the application of antiodor finish. The leaves of Ricinus communis, Senna auriculata (leaves) and Euphorbia hirta (leaves stem and flower) were used for obtaining the antiodor extract. The plants and their parts were collected from Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, South east coast of India.


The following was the evaluation of anti odor activity on the finished fabrics which was compared with the organoleptic evaluation of odor control for accurate value.


The selected male panelists wore the control and finished socks daily during the test period. Each sock was worn on a specific foot. At the end of the stipulated period of time, panelists had to remove the socks in the lab, and seal it in a plastic bag, and collect other socks for the next day. Four judges were selected to evaluate the odor finish from the worn socks. This evaluation was done after 14 hours of wearing of socks. The rating scale was prepared 0 to 10(10-Ideal, 9-Excellent, 8-Very Good, 7-Good, 6-Fairly Good, 5-Acceptable, 4-Fair, 3-Poorly Fair, 2-Poor, 1- Very Poor and 0 Repulsive) and was given to the judges for evaluating the effect of odor finish in the socks.

Wash Durability Test

The antiodor finished fabrics were analyzed for wash durability by subjecting the samples to washing by industrial machines and testing. The washed fabrics were assessed by ENISO 20645 test methods.


Assessment of anti odor activity on A, B, C and D samples

The following Table 1 and Figure 1 depict the result of the assessment of anti odor activity on A, B, C and D samples.

From the Table 1 and Figure 1,it is clear that among the samples of A, the unwashed finished sample FFA1 showed fair rating (4) in anti odor activity which was retained in sample FFA10 also, but after wash in samples FFA20 and FFA30 the activity slightly reduced, and was rated as 3.

Among samples of B, samples FFB1 and FFB10 exhibited fair anti odor activity which was rated as 4, whereas it was reduced drastically to a rating level of 2 in samples FFB20 and FFB30.

Table 1: Assessment of anti odor activity -dip method


Fabric Samples

Rating scale*





FFA10(after 10 washes)



FFA20(after 20 washes)



FFA30(after 30 washes)






FFB10(after 10 washes)



FFB20(after 20 washes)



FFB30(after 30 washes)






FFC10(after 10 washes)



FFC20(after 20 washes)



FFC30(after 30 washes)






FFD10(after 10 washes)



FFD20(after 20 washes)



FFD30(after 30 washes)


*Rating scale: 10-Ideal, 9-Excellent, 8-Verygood, 7-Good, 6-Fairlygood, 5-Acceptable, 4-Fair, 3-Poorly fair, 2-Poor, 1- Very poor and 0 Repulsive

In case of samples of C, the anti odor activity was noted to be fairly good, which was less in samples FFC10 and FFC20 whereas it was rated as 5(acceptable), followed by sample FFC30, which is rated as 4(Fair).

With reference to the samples of D, the highest rating was seen in sample FFD1 which was rated as 8 (very good), anti odor activity which gradually reduced to 7 (Good) in sample FFD10, followed by samples FFD20 and FFD30 with rating 6 (Fairly good) and 5 (Acceptable) respectively.

Hence it could be concluded that on washing, the anti odor activity was reduced in all the fabric samples.

Comparison between the unwashed finished and washed finished samples A, B, C & D

When comparison was made between the unwashed finished fabric and washed samples of A, B, C and D, samples of D namely FFD1, FFD10, FFD20 and FFD30 showed the highest ratings over other respective samples of A, B &, C. This was followed by the unwashed finished sample and washed samples of C, then by A and B.

Hence it could be concluded that there was maximum absorbency and retentivity of anti odor finish in fabric sample D when compared with samples A, B, C & D.


In the present study, the antiodor efficiency of three herbal extracts Ricinus communis, Senna auriculata and Euphorbia hirta were studied. The results showed promising use of these herbal extracts as source of antiodor finishing on denim fabric. After the procedure it was identified by the investigator that the fabric sample 100% cotton denim fabric (sample D) possessed all the expected characters like skin/dermal irritations/infections, without any bad odor, when compsred to the other samples.

About the Author:

M. Sumithra is an Assistant Professor at the Department of costume design and fashion of the PSG College of arts and science, Coimbatore.

N. Vasugi Raaja is a Professor and HOD of the Department Of Textiles and Clothing at the Avinashilingam Deemed University, Coimbatore.