In the global trade of textile material the efficient working of textile manufacturing and processing machines have great importance. The quantitative and qualitative product is produced by applying technically developed features in machineries which assist in increasing the trading of textile of particular industry but also assist their marketing growth.

The technical features developed in modern textile processing machineries by using automation and electronic controlling system. The application of digital controlling system in textile processing machines has the advantages:

  • Increase in quality and productivity of the processing material.
  • Process control parameters are controlled by it, also chances of breakdown in machine also reduces.

The PLC programming is applied in processing machinery by using controller which is correlated with individual parameters.

For e.g. if the dye solution level in the trough of the dye padder is reduced it is sensed by the pressure transducer which gives activation signal to the dosing pump of the dye liquor due to which the dye level is maintained and chances of colour variation in the batch decreases and continuous production can be obtained.

Following are some of the digital controllers used in textiles machineries:

  1. Solenoid valves
  2. Load cell
  3. Thermo couple
  4. Pressure/ capacitive transducers
  5. Flame detectors/ photo cells
  6. Moisture measuring device
  7. Electrodes
  8. Optical density measuring device
  9. Strain gauge
  10. Baume measuring device

With the help of PLC programming, automation and electronic controlling system, it is possible to increase the production speed of the machine.

The functioning of processing controllers by PLC programming system is as follows

The application of electronic process controller in textile machineries which are responsible for correlating the individual parameter by PLC programming as follows

  1. The passage of fabric over tensioning roller which is having attached load cell it measure tension over a fabric and changes the frequency of drive of pulling roller.

  2. Thermocouple installed in drying unit, singeing unit measure processing temperature if it is having more tolerance with set point temperature; it changes the percentage exhaustion to maintain it.

  3. Pressure transducers installed in washing unit which measure water level and cause the activation of feed pump to achieve water level up to required height.

  4. The yarn clearer in modern spinning machine of speed frame and ring frame used to identify irregularity in the yarn. It is nothing but LVDT linear variable differential transformer. According to changes in the inductance it changes the parameter of drafting system or twisting property.

  5. The mercerization is effective when there is a continuous supply of fixed concentration of caustic, it is calculated by using baume measuring device. It calculates the density of caustic liquor according to its measurement it changes the washing parameter or charges the feeding of caustic.

  6. The photocells used in weft straightener used for the measuring skew and bowing effect throughout the width of fabric and to get it per the set point the driving angle of expander charges to reduce this effect also it getting used in the synchronization of speed in between printing station & drying unit.

  7. The feeding device which consist of plunger which sense throughout width of fabric to adjust the stenter frame so that it becomes easy for delivering the fabric with tension.

The digital electronic system having fundamental relation with each process but the efficient working of this controller are also important therefore it is required to take preventive majors during the period of maintenance of textile machineries to continue the production ability of textile industry.

Most of the textile manufacturing industries like benninger, kuster, monforts have inbuilt the electronically controlling system in machineries due to which the minimum breakdown in machineries & high productivity is possible. The kuster have developed the online washing system to adjust another matching within short period. Along with the textile machineries the controlling system are also used in plant accessories like boiler, thermopac & ETP plant.

The maintenance of these digital electronic controllers is also important for their efficient working, otherwise the process defect observed.

This article was originally published in the Textile Review magazine, December, 2012 issue, published by Saket Projects Limited, Ahmedabad.

About the Author:

Banti Bhalerao, Rahul Oza, Hanish Bhoir and Kiran Kambli are associated with the D.K.T.E. Textile and Engineering Institute of Ichalkaranji, Kolhapur