Nylon carpet fiber is the most popular fiber (about 90% of residential carpets and 65% of all carpets). Nylon carpet fiber is a good choice for all traffic areas because it is durable and static free, maintains fiber height, and resists soiling, staining, and mildew. Nylon fibers, which are dyed after production, maintain color. Some nylon carpet fades with sunlight. It comes in continuous or spun fibers. Spun yarn is made of short lengths of fibers that are spun together. Thus, continuous filaments are less likely to unravel.
- Yarn-forming substance of any long-chain, synthetic polyamide having recurring amide groups as an integral part of the polymer chain
- Offered as BCF or staple, both used for commercial application
- Sold as a solution-dyed yarn
- Accounts for 65% of all face fibers in carpet products
- Good bulk and cover
- Good crush resistance
- Long wearing
- Clear colors
- Range of dye depths
- Excellent luster range
- Good performance, even at low weights
- Good soil resistance
- Responds we to cleaning
- Higher cost
- Easiest of synthetic fibers to stain with typical food and beverage spills (fabric protection helps fight this problem)
- Will lose color in presence of bleach, especially chlorine
Practically any style carpet, in any price range, can be made with Nylon and easily dyed and finished by any method.
Acrylic Carpet Fiber
Acrylic carpet fiber offers the appearance and feel of wool without the cost. Acrylic carpet fiber has a low static level and is moisture and mildew resistant. It is commonly used in Velvet and Level Loop constructions; it is often used for bath and scatter rugs.
Acrylic carpet fiber is known as art, art wool, or man-made wool because it is an artificial fiber. These fibers provide the look and feel of wool at a fraction of the cost. Acrylic carpet fiber resists static electricity, moisture, mildew, fading, crushing, staining, and sun damage. However, acrylic fiber is not durable enough for high traffic areas (it fails under abrasion when compared to other fibers).
Acrylic fibers are produced from acrylonitrile, a petrochemical. The acrylonitrile is usually combined with small amounts of other chemicals to improve the ability of the resulting fiber to absorb dyes. Some acrylic fibers are dry spun and others are wet spun. Acrylic fibers are used in staple or tow form.
These fibers are modified to give special properties best suited for particular end-uses. They are unique among synthetic fibers because they have an uneven surface, even when extruded from a round-hole spinneret.
Carpet Fiber Characteristics
- Outstanding wick ability & quick drying to move moisture from body surface
- Flexible aesthetics for wool-like, cotton-like, or blended appearance
- Easily washed, retains shape
- Resistant to moths, oil, and chemicals
- Dye able to bright shades with excellent fastness
- Superior resistance to sunlight degradation
Olefin Carpet Fiber
Olefin carpet fiber is strong, resists wear and permanent stains, and it is easily cleaned. It is notably colorfast because Color is added in the fiber production. It resists static electricity and is often used in both indoor and outdoor installations because of its resistance to moisture and mildew. It is used in synthetic turf for sports surfaces and in the home for patio and game rooms. Many Berber are made of Olefin.
Olefin is the next-best seller after nylon (about 80% of commercial carpet). These fibers are colorfast because the production process involves mixing polypropylene with dyes. Olefin works best in loop carpets such as Berbers. It is strong (resisting both crushing and abrasion), mildew resistant, moisture resistant, and easy to clean (bleach can be used safely in some cases). However, olefin can be easy to crush depending on the pile. This fiber is used in many artificial sport turfs.
- Fiber-forming substance of any long-chain, synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene or other olefin units
- Offered as BCF or staple
- Primarily sold as a
solution-dyed fiber or yarn
- Can be engineered for outdoor applications
- Solution dyed colors
- Good cover and bulk
- Abrasion resistance
- Inherent stain resistance
- Low static
- Favorably priced
- Resists fading
- Poor resilience
- Flammability rating typically lower than nylon
- Contract and residential
- Medium to low price points
- Dominant fiber in primary backing
Polyester Carpet Fiber
Polyester carpet fiber is noted for its luxurious soft "hand" when used in thick, cut pile textures. It has excellent color clarity and retention. Polyester is easily cleaned and resistant to water-soluble stains.
Polyester does not hold its fiber height under traffic and shifting weight as well as other carpet fibers. Polyester is luxurious, durable against abrasions, easy to clean, and resistant to water soluble stains. Polyester carpets cost less than wool and nylon.
- Made from terephthalic acid and
- Offered in BCF, but mainly
- Used in residential and some commercial applications
- Color clarity
- Resistant to water-soluble
- Noted for luxurious
Wool Carpet Fiber
Wool's naturally crimped shape is the formation of millions of air pockets that act as insulation to help regulate room temperature and reduce energy bills. Also, Berber carpet is easy to clean and purifies your indoor air for up to 30 years from common contaminants like formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide by locking the contaminants deep in the core of the fiber. Soft, yet resilient, this fiber can withstand the toughest treatment and still bounce back.
- Natural fiber
- Inherent resilient property
- High customer acceptance
- Pleasing hand
- Styling versatility
- Frame resistant
- Low "apparent soiling"
- High static charge
- Difficult to remove many stains
- Allergenic for some
- Variable quality
- Available only in staple
- Low abrasion resistance
- Not piece dye able
- Contract and residential
This article was originally published in Textile learner blog run by Mazharul Islam Kiron.