Contrary to its name, biotechnology is not a single technology. Rather it is a group of technologies that share two (common) characteristics -- working with living cells and their molecules and having a wide range of practice uses that can improve our lives. Biotechnology can be broadly defined as "using organisms or their products for commercial purposes." As such, (traditional) biotechnology has been practices since the beginning of records history. (It has been used to :) bake bread; brew alcoholic beverages, and breed food crops or domestic animals (2). But recent developments in molecular biology have given biotechnology new meaning, new prominence, and new potential. It is (modern) biotechnology that has captured the attention of the public. Modern biotechnology can have a dramatic effect on the world economy and society (3). One example of modern biotechnology is genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is the process of transferring individual genes between organisms or modifying the genes in an organism to remove or add a desired trait or characteristic. This paper deals with the application of modern biotechnology in textile industries.

Unique genetic engineering methods to create new and useful fiber modifying enzymes. Most of our enzyme products are made with genetically engineered organisms. This gives our customers the best economy and functionality possible. American industry spends billions of dollars annually on technology systems to manage waste and capture pollution emissions. Industrial biotechnology--the use of genetically enhanced microorganisms (GEMs) and enzymes--offers a new cost-effective way to prevent the creation of pollution in the first place. Among the report's findings * Biotechnology process changes in the textile finishing sector can reduce water usage by about 17% to 18%. Textile mills may potentially reduce water consumption by as much as 30% to 50% through the use of biotechnology.

The use of enzymes in the textile chemical processing is rapidly gaining globally recognition because of their non-toxic and eco-friendly characteristics with the increasingly important requirements for textile manufacturers to reduce pollution in textile production. Enzymes sources, activity, specificity, reaction, mechanism and thermodynamics, function of textile processing with enzymes, major enzymatic applications in textile wet processing and promising areas of enzyme applications in textile processing... The need is to provide the textile technologist with an understanding of enzymes and their use with textile materials.


Enzymes are generally globular proteins and like other proteins consist of long linear chains of amino acids that fold to produce a three-dimensional product. Each unique amino acid sequence produces a specific structure, which has unique properties. Individual protein chains may sometimes group together to form a protein complex.