Kota Doria fabric have square weave pattern which makes it one of the finest open weave fabric in India. The cotton, silk and zari (fine metal threads) yarns is weaving on the pit loom that produces these patterns. It is an ideal fabric for summer. The thick and thin threads in regular intervals make lightweight open weave fabric. The cotton yarn provides stiffness and silk provides lustre to the fabric.
Kota Doria, as its name suggests, is woven mainly Kaithoon village (20 kms from Kota city) at Kota district of South East Rajasthan. The weavers are primarily located at Kota district, though a few still pursue their craft in adjacent Bundi and Baran district. Kaithoon is a town of with a population who are mostly weavers. Approximate 1500 weavers work for this cluster.
Maharao Kishore Singh ruler of Kotah first made the saris, which weavers brought from the Southern India (Deccan erstwhile Mysore). The weaves originated in Mysore and hence are locally known as Kota Masuria. It was earlier used for making Pagri (traditional headgear), Sari.
Kota Doria are made by strong cotton or cotton-silk yarns to make them transparent, lightweight products. Sari is the most regular fabric made from Kota Doria, but now dress material, kurtas, handbags, pouches and sashes embellished with gotta patti, mukesh and mirror work can also be found. The fabric can be decorative with borders and small floral patterns called buti. Other ornamentation techniques include batik, tie-and-dye, hand-block printing, and applique work. Other areas of application are home furnishing like window curtains and lampshades.
The conventional Kota Doria originated in white colour and got dyed in different colours as per buyer needs. Single colour dying, dappled patterns, tie dyed pattern are general with new style coming up each day. Approximately, 4, 10, 000-meter fabric are produced on 1500 loom.
The square-check pattern locally known as Khat is produced by a combination of thick and thin yarns of cotton and silk. The conventional fabric is made by 300 to 350 Khat made across the width of the fabric. Each khat made by eight cotton and six silk yarns.
Different yarns are used for warp and weft. The most used combination is as follows (A). Cotton x cotton (B). Cotton x silk (C). Tussar silk x tussar silk.
As per traditional standards, in the cotton-cotton variety there are more or less 02 khats found in an inch, both in width as well as length direction. Each khat has 14 threads (i.e. 08 cotton & 06 of silk yarns) both in cross and longitudinal direction.
The main raw materials used for kota doria fabric is cotton, silk and zari. The cotton bought from Ahmadabad, Gujarat, and Maharashtra. 80s to 120s mainly combed quality cotton yarn are used in both warp and weft. The silk is bought from Bangalore, Karnataka, and the zari is purchased from Surat and Gujarat. 20/22 Denier to 13/15 Denier degummed silk is used in warp and weft way.
Method of production:
The yarn is prepared in wooden peg warping frame, which are locally known as Pinjras. They are placed along the whole length of yarn, so that a constantly criss-crossed set of two yarns may be obtained for the weaving process. This helps in finding out the broken yarn on the loom during weaving. These wooden pegs are placed below a thick rope tied to a pair of iron pegs on each, and it is the length of the rope that determines the length of the warp (generally 30 yards), keeping in mind that at a time 5 saris of 6 yards can be produced including the wastage.
The number of round taken stuck between the two ends of the rope is based on the number of khat desired in the sari. Since each khat is made of 8 cotton and 6 silk yarns in it, the number of rotations around the stand is resolute by the capacity of the heald being used. Hence, a novel Kota Doria sari of 300 khats has 2400 cotton and 1800 silk yarns in the warp.
The yarns are wounds from cones to shuttle spools. Pirn winding is also used for silk and zari yarn for value addition. The rotatary wheel attached to conveyor belt on harness gives rotatary motion. The yarn wound is on smaller spindle by this motion.
The yarn is dyed in traditional red and foam green colour. The dyed yarn is also purchased from the mill according to requirement. Mostly, vat dyes are used for fabric. The direct dyes are also used due to easy availability of silk and cotton. These dyes are eco friendly for sustainable use. Some time vegetable dyes are also used as per demand. Mostly, saris dyed in bright colours such as red, blue, orange, yellow, purple and green are produced.
Sizing, Drafting and Denting:
Sizing is used to impart strength to warp yarn so that it can survive the beating motion of reed. It is done only for cotton yarn with rice paste known as maandi. Sometimes, weavers also use onion juice. The warp yarn is passed through the heald eye as per design known as drafting. It is also helpful for identifying a broken yarn.
The weaver fills the reed (a comb like structure) known as Raanch. The traditional skill is useful for filling the reed. Bamboos make the reed.
It is the process of joining the new warp yarns with earlier leftover yarns on the loom at design change. The denting process is more time taking and painstaking. Otherwise, the new yarn added to the leftover yarn in the reed is to continue weaving. It can be joined by the help of index finger and thumb. Ash can be used for friction piecing operation.
The design pattern made on the Jala or Healed shaft at loom is specific according to the graphs made for design. The 16-harness dobby and 100 hooks Jacquard is chosen for design in power loom.
The pit looms made by carpenters locally in very traditional manner use throw shuttle technique to carry the weft yarn passing through across the yarn. Feet are used to uplift the treadles. The weavers sit in a position that their feet rest on treadles. This provides opening of shed and weft yarns or pick released by shuttle in front of the reed. The reed provides beating mechanism. This action makes fabric beaten to the fall of cloth which provide a lot of flexibility to the weaver in controlling of the design and the beating of the reed to achieve the Khat pattern.
The exclusive characteristic of the Doria fabric produce on handloom encouraged the KDHF (Kota Doria Development Hadauti Foundation) to apply GI with the help of
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO). Under the Geographical Registration Act 1999 in 2005, the GI registration accorded for the restricted geographical region of Kota in class 24 & 25 of handicrafts.
SWOT ANALYSIS of Kota Doria Cluster:
It is an effective tool for critically analysing the kota doria fabric for total quality management, what product for what market, availability of raw materials, what is the price and how will these be promoted.
The distinguishing characteristics of the fabric is the square weave check pattern, known as "Khat'' by combination of thicker and thin yarn of cotton and silk. It makes ground fabric beside other fabric ornamentation. These make it a unique handloom fabric. Minimum electricity consumption is required in this process. Flexible working hours and work from home provisions can also be availed. The raw material is comfortably available. Hallmark and GI certification is awarded to the Kota Doria. Easy availability of skilled artisans near this place is gain an advantage. It provides job opportunity for both men and women.
1. The handcrafted fabric is expensive and takes more time then power loom fabric. It requires high level of skill, patience and concentration. The whole family is involved in making Doria.
2. Low level of modernisation and up gradation technology and the integration of developed technology is very slow.
3. Absence of awareness about the intricacies of the whole process.
4. Less awareness of market trends, design working on traditional techniques with less innovation in the existing process, less advertising and promotion.
5. Low productivity resulted in low wage earning.
The future lies in the fact that handlooms should provide exclusive fabric meant for high couture, which constitutes for high-end market. Product diversification and skill up gradation is the main theme for growth. It is clear that weavers should not produce low-priced fabrics which can easily be formed by power loom. They have to produce exclusive varieties, which are impossible to produce in the power loom; that's good money at the same time.
The traditional weaver left the profession due to lack of confidence, awareness and wages due to stiff competition from global market. New generation is not interested due to less remuneration. The Fiscal difference exists between retailers, master weavers and weavers. Threat exists from cheap power loom machine fabric from China, Varanasi and Kolkata. The price and taxes have been fluctuating from time to time.
At the winding up of the swot analysis of kota doria, it is imperative that customers are still being deceived by substandard power loom stuff. Poor awareness for hand-woven fabric, its hallmark and GI patent in consumers. The prime focal point is boosting consciousness in consumers regarding kota doria. The Government needs to put a pro-active measure to protect this heritage. The support from the government in terms of different schemes for technology up gradation and other financial support are required to improve the life of weavers in this area. There is a great need to improve and expand the marketing facilitated of the handloom products.
2. Ipiindiaservices.gov.in/Gi_Doc/12/12- Form GI
A. Biswas and Kritika K., geographical indications in India :A Case Study Of Kota Doria, Granite II - 1/2010, cuts citee