The local, national and international economies are continuously expanding to compete at a higher level. This expansion has further invigorated the concept of globalisation. There is no dearth of names (involving large, medium and small scale businesses) that are actively discovering the international markets. The earlier constraints of physical and geographical boundaries have also been removed with e-retail. Globalisation has made every sector its part and any qualms in accepting this process inevitably results in lack of growth.

The sector of textile and clothing has become grand and magnificent today, all thanks to the globalisation. The competition in textile and clothing industry is immense and even those who are averse to the idea of globalisation cannot avoid being part of it. As a matter of fact, globalisation has deeply influenced the textile and clothing industry. The national and international trade policies, the cost of labour, the overall cost of manufacturing apparel, the quality of garments and the access to various markets, the world of fashion, every single idea of textile and apparel is affected by globalisation.

One of the major impacts of globalisation has been the changes in geographical distribution of textile and apparel manufacturing. The brands are focusing on cutting the cost of manufacturing and for this more and more sub-contracts are being given to textile manufacturers based in developing countries like China, India, Bangladesh, et al. This has resulted in employment losses in some regions of Europe and United States of America. This shift from developed to developing countries has also altered the working conditions.

In last quarter of 2012, a fire accident was reported in a Bangladeshi textile factory, following which, in early 2013 a textile factory in Bangladesh collapsed claiming lives of many. The textile industry's working conditions in many developing countries are similar. However, strict rules from the brands giving contracts are gradually changing the scenario for better. The developing countries long for positive attention of luxury brands, thus these countries are now becoming stern with regard to work place safety.

Thus, it wouldn't be incorrect to say that globalisation is responsible for a substantial rise in the level of global employment. It is estimated that the number of workers in textile and clothing along with footwear industry are close to 23.6 million globally. The data with regard to employment in textile's informal sector is calculated to be almost five to ten times higher. The only flaw in this rise is that the informal sector is developing at much faster pace than formal sector.

Thus, employment in formal sector establishments has negligibly changed in past decade, whereas the earnings by and large in the industrialised countries have risen. Globalisation has increased employment in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Korea, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. It has been reported that China employs around 5.3 million workers in textile and clothing sector, which is the highest in the world.


The globalisation has paved way for rise in exports. Currently, Asia has become major world supplier of clothing and more than 60 percent of world clothing exports are manufactured in developing countries. With free trade agreements, the fashion world has also transformed completely. The modern day customers are better informed about fashion, fabrics and designs.

There is a tendency to ape the high-end fashion brands. Plagiarism in apparel world has become more common now. Also the traditional clothing and traditional arts have suffered a huge blow because of globalisation. Traditional attire like headscarf has been banned in France to encourage secularism. The various cultures are becoming one via fashion and apparel world- courtesy globalisation.

The cost of transportation and communication has also reduced considerably with globalisation, thus further promoting outsourcing. This has also led to an increase in the speed of production in fashion. The concept of fast fashion emerges from here. The contemporary tools like internet forums have resulted in frequent exchange of ideas. This has enabled the development and spreading of new technological innovations in textile and has boosted the usefulness of production in every corner of the globe. There is an enhanced exchange of information regarding the availability of newer textile, the flaws in already existing fabrics and the changes in technology involved in production process.

Even though globalisation has boosted economies of many countries, the local manufacturers are still struggling to cope with rise in competition. One of the unconstructive outcomes of rapid globalisation has been the closure of umpteen number of local textile factories around the world. In order to compete with the international brands, the local manufacturers have to cut down on the profit margin and accelerate the production to meet the rising demand, which ultimately leads to downfall. There has also been a noticeable rise in immigration, which is encouraging a pool of sweatshops in developed countries.

On the altruistic side, globalisation has strengthened the trade of second-hand clothing and encouraged establishment of apparel charity thrift shops. The trends in trade often mirror the broader social trends. There has been a strong diversification that has taken the world by storm. The pre-production and post-production textile processes have all gone through a facelift, with globalisation becoming part and parcel of international trade. The textile markets have expanded and there is abundance of innovations waiting to be explored. The textile and clothing industry owes its grand success to globalisation, as it has led to a combination of ample opportunities and easy availability of resources at cheaper rates.


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