Introduction:


Textile Industry is in the forefront of Indian economy, and contributes 4% to the GDP. Since the lifting of the trade barriers and severe of competition from China, Pakistan, Bangladesh and other South Asian countries. Textile export has increased. India has an advantage of skilled manpower, reasonably priced yarn of superior quality and has the ability to meet the quality demands of the garment sector of domestic and export market. With this background it is possible to achieve the projected performance. In the light of changing Economic scenario, globalisation and free world trade, modernization and technological upgradation of power loom sector is important to enhance its competitiveness.


Government of India, Ministry of Textiles has entrusted IL&FS to facilitate the establishment of Integrated Textile parks in the country. With world class Infrastructure for textile weaving units and processing plants to cater the needs of small scale sector. Also the Government has extended the TUFS, Capital Interest subside Schemes to modernize the Textile sector Nearly 30 parks have been sanctioned and the production will commence in 2007-2008.


With the cluster development approach and teamwork in the textile manufacturing units of the park, the cost of production will go down. In order to produce quality Fabrics that will meet international quality demand, it is necessary to modernize the weaving units with shuttleless looms and requisite weaving preparatory equipments. With Government and private participation and timely modernization of textile Units, India will become the Market leaders in Textiles and boost the countrys economy. This paper makes an attempt to highlight the appropriate Technology & equipment selection, specially suited to the small-scale sector.


Technology selection:


Technology selection and modernisation of the weaving units depends upon the product mix of fabrics required in the domestic market, garment sector and export market. Also it is imperative to produce fault free fabrics and manufacture the fabric at lower cost. Operational cost has to be reviewed on a continuous basis. To face the competition Timely delivery of fabric as desired by the market is the order of the day, together with the capability to accept small order.

Product mix:


v  Yarn dyed garment fabric from cotton and polyester cotton (Cloth width 150 cms Finished)

v  Bottom wear fabrics, denims, corduroy, stretch denims (150 cms finished width)

v  Polyester Viscose suiting/Poly wool suiting

v  Wider width sheetings or bed linen (cotton and polyester blend) for domestic market and for export market, having thread count varying from 300 to 600 (Cloth width at finished stage160, 229 cms, 240 cms,290cms )

v  Furnishing fabrics, curtains fabrics, Industrial fabrics

v  Technical fabrics i.e. Automotive textiles ,filter cloth etc

Quality requirement of fabrics meant for garment sector /export market


1.  Yarn count, both warp and weft yarn as per 25% Uster Norm

2.  Cloth construction Ends/inch & picks/inch as per the specification

3.  Cloth width as per requirement and within 2-3% tolerance limit

4.  Tearing strength warp & weft way as per specification

5.  Pilling resistance to wash and rubbing as per specification

6.  Colour fastness to light, washing and rubbing as per specification

7.  Crease resistance, bursting strength, bowing tendency

8.  Cloth inspection standard on point system of grading (4 point system)



 

Key issues to be considered for the modernisation of weaving sector


v  Capital cost of the machinery and equipments for the required product mix, keeping in view the return of Capital investment,( grey fabric cost/meter, cost/pick etc)

v  Flexibility of the equipment to meet the changing market demand, keeping in view the full utilization of the attachment of shuttleless looms such as dobby, jacquard, number of weft color selection

v  Operate the shuttleless looms at 85%-90% installed efficiency

v  Monitor the operating cost i.e. power, water, lighting, humidification, air in case of Airjet looms, lighting, spare parts etc.

v  Improve the infrastructure i.e. building, roads, transport and communication network, computer aided design facilities

v  Trained work force and training facilities, yarn testing and fabric testing facilities and market research, product development

Appropriate shuttleless looms options are:


v  New Rapier looms (Flexible or rigid) Indigenous or Imported

v  Airjet looms

v  Second hand rapier or Airjet looms, with a minimum residual life of 20 years and capable to work at the manufacturers recommended loom speed with minimum breakdowns


It is advisable to install new looms instead of second hand looms. To illustrate the advantage, Annexure I gives the comparison of new Rapier looms and second hand Rapier looms


Annexure I

Loom shed configuration:


Particulars

New Rapier loom

Second hand Rapier loom

No. of looms

24

24

Area requirement

10,860 sq. feet

10,860 sq. feet

Loom speed r.p.m.

550

350

Production/day/24 looms

5,364 metres

3413 metres


Capital Cost of the Project (Approximate) Rupees in Lacs

 

Capital Cost of the Project (Approximate) Rupees in Lacs

Particulars

Value

Value

Cost of one Rapier loom

20

12

Total cost of 24 looms

480

288

Ancillary equipment

Material handling

7.0

7.0

Knotting unit

15.0

15.0

Stabiliser

2.0

2.0

Compressor

2.0

2.0

Humidification plant

18.0

18.0

Water softening plant

1.5

1.5

Fabric Inspection machine

2.5

2.5

Drawing in stands

1.0

1.0

False ceiling/ducting

4.0

4.0

Internal electricals

12.0

12.0

TOTAL

545 .0

353.0




 

Operating Cost/Meter (Conversion cost/meter)


Particulars

New Rapier loom

Rupees/meter

Second hand Rapier loom

Rupees/meter

Power

3.61

5.68

Sizing cost

2.40

2.40

Labour Cost

0.78

1.21

Staff & Administration

0.43

0.71

Spare parts 7 Maintenance

0.27

0.63

Water for humidification

0.30

0.30

Interest@9.0%

2.50

2.45

Depreciation 10% annum

2.90

3.00

Total conversion cost/meter

13.19

16.38


Cost/pick 190 cm loom

18 NP

23 NP


 

Cost/metre will go down with Government interest subsidy, and power subsidy


Assumptions:


Quality considered:

Yarn dyed shirting 150 cms Finished fabric

40 Ne warp 40 Ne weft 108 reed and 72 pick

Power Cost

Rs. 4.0 unit

Spare part maintenance

Rs. 20 loom shift new looms

Rs.30 lomm shift old loom

Sizing cost

Rs. 20/kg.

Water

Rs. 25/KL


Technological comparison of Rapier looms and Airjet looms.


Both modern rapier looms and Airjet looms are capable to produce variety fabrics and are equipped with required attachments as per the customers requirement. Most of the looms are user friendly and easy to maintain because of the electronic controls.


To cater the needs of domestic market and export market the loom width ideally suited is 190 cms for single width weaving and 340 cms for multi-width width weaving or wider width weaving of sheetings and bed linen and furnishing fabrics



Features

Rapier looms

Airjet looms

1.

Capital cost /loom (Rs.)

12-22 Lakhs

16-24 lakhs

2.

Pick insertion

Single/multiple

Single/Multiple

3.


(a) 190 cms width

(b) 340 cms width

400-650 r.p.m.

350 r.p.m.

800-1000 r.p.m

550-600 r.p.m

4.

Operating Cost/loom

Moderate

Moderate

5.


Flexibility to Weave

Different Type of fabric

Versatile

Limited

6.

Suitability

Short/long runs

Long runs

7.




Yarn quality and weaving

preparatory requirement

Moderate



Superior


8.

Power cost/loom

5.5-7.0KW

11 -12 Kw

 

Technical specifications of shuttleless loom



Feature

Rapier Loom

Airjet Loom

1.

Loom width

190-380 cms

190-380 cms

2.

Yarn range

spun yarn Nm 1-2

Filament 22-4000 Denier

spun yarn Nm 3-170

20-500 denier

3.

Filling selection

1-12 colour

1-8 colour

4.

Filling stop motion

Piezoelectric

Photoectric

5.

Shed formation

Cam

Dobby

Jacquard


8 cam

Electronic 12-20 shafts

Electronic


10 cam

10-16 shfts

Electronic

6.

let off 7 take up

Electronic

Electronic

7.

Selvedge motion

Electronic controlled

Rotary selvedge motion

8.

Pick finding

Automatic

Automatic

9.

Machine drive

Independent Sumo motor

Sumo motor

10

Optional

start mark preventor

start mark preventor

11.

Machine controls

Microprocessor control

Microprocessor control

12

Ability to handle Fancy weft

wide range

Limited range

13.

Weft control

Electronic

Electronic

14

Selvedge formation

Leno, Tucked, Melt

Tucked, Leno, Melt

15

Multiwidth weaving

Suitable

Suitable


Strategy to be adopted by the small-scale sector to optimize the production and control cost


1. Procure the imported/indigenous shuttleless looms ready to weave with required cams for plain, Twill or sateen weave with healds, heald frame. Warp beam, drop pins can be procured locally from reputed manufacturers to bring down the capital cost


2. Humidification system should be for minimum 24 looms to keep the cost low.

3 .In case of Airjet loom compressor should be for running 24-48 looms to reduce the cost. Air should be free of moisture and oil.


4. Employ contract skilled labour for knotting /drawing/loom cleaning to bring down the labour cost

5. Arrange to have the warp beam sized from reputed sizers.


6. Shuttleless loom utilization should be 95% and above

7. Maintenance personnel can be shared among a group of entrepreneurs


8. Engineering service can be shared among a group of entrepreneurs

9. Common spare parts storage to bring down the loom downtime

10 Insist on loom manufacturers representative to do the loom audit and maintenance check up


11. Cloth inspection/packing should be on contract basis


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